Online ISSN: 2788-6867

Volume 1, Issue 4

Volume 1, Issue 4, Autumn 2021, Page 1-104

Regular Article

Developing Strategy for a Successful Antioxidant, Anticancer Activity via an Improved Method Prepared to Porous Silicon Nanoparticles

Kareem H. Jawad; Butheina Hasson

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2021, Volume 1, Issue 4, Pages 1-11
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2021.3890.1054

Porous silicon nanoparticles, or PSNPs, are one of the most common NPS with distinct characteristics. PSNPs were created using an enhanced approach known as the electrochemical etching process. The nanoparticles were treated with a post-laser to obtain the nanoparticles, which were subsequently analyzed using (SEM), (UV-Vis), and (XRD). The size refers to porous silicon with a nanostructure. Because of the differences in interaction between the HF electrolyzed and silicon and crystal structure, PS (100) offers better NP properties than directional silicon (111). PSNPs' antioxidant activity was measured using the DPPH test, while cytotoxicity was measured using the MTT assay on Hella cells. PSNPs have an inhibitory impact on cancer cell growth and antioxidants, according to the findings. PSNPs did not have any toxicological effects on the skin, lungs, or spleen after injection.

Preparation of Micro Barium Titanate Powder and Comparison with Nano Powder Properties

Ghadeer Sadiq Jassim; Mojahid Najim; Wafaa Salih

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2021, Volume 1, Issue 4, Pages 12-23
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2021.3653.1033

In this paper, a homogenous pure Barium Titanate with formula (BaTiO3) was prepared from pure Barium Carbonate (BaCO3) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) using the solid-state reaction technique, were used as raw materials having micro size by mixing of molar ratio [1:1], the powder was calcined at temperatures (900-1350) °C. The solid-State reaction can consider as an attractive process realistic alternative to the expensive wet-chemical route, according to X-ray diffraction, all of the peaks of Barium Titanate powder were perfectly suited to the positions of the peaks of the standard tetragonal phase in the pattern for this process. And with preferred crystalline size for the powder calcined at 1350 °C manifested the best results, where all the peaks indicate the formation of Barium Titanate completely. In addition, each BaTiO3 Nanopowder was compared to a micro powder that had been manufactured, by conducting x-ray diffraction, diffraction peaks undergo shifting toward higher angle to the high value of 2Ө, and Nano powder particles are smaller than micro powder particles. And this refers to a decrease in lattice parameters, in terms of the peaks of the Nano powder preceding the peaks of the micro powder of BaTiO3 and that match the result that is obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

Sequencing Analysis of cvaC Gene in Acinetobacter Baumannii That Isolates from Different Infections

Rana M. Abdullah; Rasha Z. T. Ahmed

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2021, Volume 1, Issue 4, Pages 24-31
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2021.3782.1042

Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the opportunistic nurses responsible for many acquired infections in hospitals due to its ability to resist many antibiotics. This is one of the problems facing hospitals in the world. Identification of the cvaC gene and sequence analysis in Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from various infections, and mutation detection in this gene. From 1st of September to 30th of November, 2016, 200 Acinetobacter baumannii isolates were obtained from various clinical samples. Follow fifty isolates from blood, twenty isolates from urinary tract infections, thirty isolates from wound infections, forty isolates from burn infections and twenty-five isolates from stool samples from various hospitals (Central Children's Hospital, Al Karama Hospital, Karkh General Hospital, Al-Ameen Medical City Hospital, Educational Labs, Baghdad Teaching Hospital, Child Protection Hospital, Burns and Wounds Hospital) in Baghdad city. Identification forty isolates confirmed that they belong to Acinetobacter baumannii, including fourteen isolates from a stool sample, nine isolates from blood, eight isolates from burns, four isolates from wound infections, and Respiratory tract infection, , and only one isolate from urinary tract infections sample. Genotypic detection of the cvaC gene of Acinetobacter baumannii showed the presence of this gene in 16 isolates (40%) and Sequencing analysis of cvaC has shown seven genetic mutations and only one mutation has been converted amino acid Alanine to Valine.The amino acid Alanine was changed to Valine in Position 656 at Subject 678, resulting in silent mutations that did not affect protein translation and other mutations that resulted in a change in the amino acid arrangement and protein translation.

Study and Investigation of the Effects of the OTA Technique on the Physical Properties of the ZnO Thin Films Prepared by PLD

Duha S. Hassan; Mehdi Zayer

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2021, Volume 1, Issue 4, Pages 32-43
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2021.3805.1045

The polycrystalline thin films were deposited on glass substrate at room temperature by pulsed laser deposition PLD technique. The effects of annealing treatment by used the Oil Thermal Annealing (OTA) process on the structural, optical and electrical properties of ZnO thin film films were investigated. The film structure was investigated by X-ray diffraction to indicate that the heat treatment after the OTA process gives the optimized condition of crystalline. The transmission spectrum of the film was measured by UV-V is spectrophotometer, and the Urbach energy and forbidden band width were calculated. The surface topography of the film was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of the ZnO thin film at the OTA process shows the changes in the shape and size of the grains. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) effect of heat treatment was demonstrated by the change in the surface roughness of the ZnO thin film. The electrical properties of thin film were optioned by Hall Effect technique. That these improvements in the ZnO thin film physical properties were annealing temperatures by OTA at 150 °C, 200 °C, 250 °C and 300 °C.

Evidence of Antioxidant Activity of Novel L-Glutaminase Purified from L. Gasseri BRLHM

Butheina Hasson; Likaa Mahdi; Rajwa Essa

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2021, Volume 1, Issue 4, Pages 44-51
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2021.3969.1064

Probiotic strains have the potential to be used as bio-preservatives and functional radical scavenging treatments in the future.  Antioxidant tests, including DPPH radical scavenging, were used to evaluate the antioxidant effects of extracellular L- Glutaminase isolated from L. gasseri BRLHM. Parameters for the promoted production of the enzyme under minimal production media were optimized.    The importance of this study lies in enhancing the production of the L- Glutaminase isolated from L. gasseri BRLHM with a high activity using these L. gasseri bacterial as antioxidant activity. In ion-exchange chromatography, the specific activity was 14.7U/mg protein, with 58.8% yield and 4.6 purification folds.   In the gel filtration, the specific activity was 23.4 U/mg protein, with a yield of 54 % and 4.6 purification folds. According to the findings, L-Glutaminase isolated from L .gasseri BRLHM exhibited good antioxidant properties. As the concentration rose, there was a remarkable proportionate increase in scavenging activity. The IC50 values for control and L- Glutaminase were 36.09 1.12 and 619.8 gm/ml, respectively. The IC50 values were discovered to be 100 and 200 μg/ml, respectively. Conclusion: For the first time, the high of L- Glutaminase isolated  L. gasseri BRLHM was shown to exhibit antioxidant. This could be a promising discovery for future radical scavenging treatments and antioxidant prophylaxis with natural probiotics.

The Effect of Current Density on the Properties of Porous Silicon Gas Sensor for Ethanol and Methanol Vapour Detection

Muna H. Kareem; Adi M.; Haitham T. Hussein

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2021, Volume 1, Issue 4, Pages 52-60
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2021.3834.1048

In this paper, Gas sensors for ethanol and methanol were created utilizing porous silicon (PSi).n-type silicon was employed for all PSi samples, photo-electrochemical etching technique (PECE) was used to prepare porous surface. The intensity of the three etchings current densities was 12, 24 and 30 mA / cm2, with 40% hydrofluoric acid concentration (HF) and a time of etching 10 minutes. Porous silicon (100) has been strictly studied by the structure and formation of surface bonding of the PSi layer; the structural properties, morphological characteristics, pore diameter, and roughness were described using X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All PSi samples were applied as a sensor for ethanol and methanol at room temperature. The results showed that the best sensitivity of PSi was to ethanol gas compared to methane under the same used conditions at etching current density 30mA/cm2, reaching about 1.809 at a concentration of 500 ppm. From these results, the PSi layers act as high-quality, low-cost gas sensors. It can be used as a replacement for expensive material that is used as gas sensors, which operate at low temperatures, including room temperature. The interest in this material is due to study the effect of extremely high surface to volume ratio (increasing surface area), and easy manufactured and compatibility with modern silicon microelectronics manufacturing technologies.

Obtaining L - Glutamate Oxidase Enzyme from Streptomyces and Estimation Its Toxicity on Blood Components

Dina H. Abdul Hameed; Entesar H. Ali

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2021, Volume 1, Issue 4, Pages 61-68
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2021.4042.1069

Streptomyces was isolated from the soil and then tested to diagnose morphologically and microscopically. Also, cultivated in the production medium of the L-glutamate oxidase enzyme, for which the wheat bran culture media was used, and then the extracellular L-glutamate oxidase enzyme was extracted using a cooling centrifuge at 8000 rpm for 20 minutes. The optimal temperature and pH for the production of the enzyme’s conditions were studied. Research results revealed that the optimum temperature for enzyme production was 30°C, and the best pH for the enzyme’s production was 7.0 later on, the enzyme was purified using common purification techniques represented by precipitation with ammonium sulfate as a preliminary purification step, followed by dialysis to remove salts, ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration chromatography were used to finish purification process. The effect of the enzyme toxicity on the human blood components was evaluated. The enzyme had no harmful effect on the blood cells, with Red Blood Cells reaching 4 x 1012, White Blood Cells 7.5 × 109 and Platelets 293 × 109.

Preparation of V2O5 and SnO2 Nanoparticles and Their Application as Pollutant Removal

Zahra A. Hassan; Rashed T. Rasheed

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2021, Volume 1, Issue 4, Pages 69-80
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2021.3869.1049

Vanadium pentoxide and Tin dioxide nanoparticles were prepared by hydrothermal methods to remove methylene blue (MB) and bromothymol blue (BTB) dyes). First the prepared nanoparticles were heated at different temperature (90 oC and 500 oC). Then these nanoparticles were characterized by different methods such as UV/Visible, FT-IR Spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Our results explain that vanadium pentoxide nanoparticles appeared high remove activity against both types of organic dyes (MB and BTB) compared to tin dioxide nanoparticles. Furthermore,vanadium pentoxide heating at 90 oC has grain size (86.02 nm) more than that of Tin dioxide (48.02 nm) at same temperature. The activity of vanadium pentoxide is more than that of tin dioxide.may be related to high ionic potential (0.073), compared with Tin dioxide (0.048).

A Generalization of the Concave Integral in Terms of Decomposition of the Integrated Function for Bipolar Scales

Fadheela Kareem; Jabbar Abbas

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2021, Volume 1, Issue 4, Pages 81-90
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2021.3985.1065

In the context of the multiple-criteria decision aid (MCDA), several fuzzy integrals concerning capacities (non-additive measures) have been introduced by various researchers in the last sixty years.  Recently, Lehrer has proposed a new integral for capacities known as concave integral. The concave integral is based on the decomposition of random variables into simple ingredients. The concave integral concerning capacity is defined as the maximum value obtained among all its decompositions. The paper aims to model a new integration based on the decomposition of random variables into simple ingredients for multi-criteria decision making support when underlying scales are bipolar.  This paper proposes a generalization of the concave integral in terms of decompositions of the integrated function to be suitable for bipolar scales. We show that the random variable is analyzed as a combination of indicators, where each allowed decomposition has a value determined by the bi-capacity. Lastly, we illustrate our framework by a practical example.

Characterization and Aerodynamics of Synthesized Polymeric Nanofibers via Electrospinning Process to Capture PM10 and PM2.5 from Air

Barra L. Abbood; Khalid A. Sukkar; Jenan A. Al-Najar

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2021, Volume 1, Issue 4, Pages 91-104
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2021.4101.1070

Air quality is an important factor for human breathing requirements. The presence of the particulate matter which is a mixture of solid particles and liquid droplets presence in atmosphere such as PM10 and PM2.5 in the indoor air leads to fatal problems for human health.  In the present investigation, two types of nanofilters (polyacrylonitrile PAN, 15wt.% and polyvinyl alcohol PVA 12wt.%) were synthesized using the electrospinning method. The polymeric solutions were prepared under high mixing conditions. The structural and morphological specifications of produced nanofibers were characterized using many measuring devices.  Also, airflow characteristics across the prepared nanofilter were evaluated by designing and constructing an airflow apparatus. The apparatus consisted of two stainless steel sections and the middle zone was designed to fit the filter media. The characterization results indicated that the synthesized of PVA 12 wt.% nanofilter has uniform morphological distribution with fibers average diameter of 92 nm while the produced PAN with 15wt.% showed and an average fibers diameter of 556 nm. Moreover, the PVA nanofilter showed high-pressure values in comparison with the PAN filter. Interestingly, both filters provided high air permeability.  Furthermore, the produced PAN nanofilter showed a high ability to capture the PM10 and PM2.5 due to the significant properties and specifications of nanofibers. Additionally, the produced nanofilter can be applied in air filtration processes effectively with low manufacturing costs.