Online ISSN: 2788-6867

Volume 2, Issue 1

Volume 2, Issue 1, Winter 2022, Page 1-98

Regular Article

Using Bioinformatics and NCBI Tools to Sequence and Structure Analysis of Transcription Factor 7 Like 2 Gene (TCF7L2) in Iraqi Diabetic Mellitus Type II Patients

Batool K. Queen; Abbas A. Mohammed

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2022, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2021.4198.1079

In this paper, the study aimed to analyze the sequence and structure of Transcription Factor 7 Like 2 gene (TCF7L2) in Iraqi Diabetic Mellitus Type II (T2DM) Patients and was compared with standard sequence form National Center of Bioinformatics Tools (NCBI) using BLAST. Ten blood samples of (T2DM) Iraqi patients, was collected from Al-Mustansiriya University National Diabetes Centre in Baghdad Province/Iraq (17-65 year). DNA was extracted from whole blood of patients’ samples using the Quick-DNA™ Blood MiniPrep kit, then it was sent to Korea at Macrogen Corporartion Company, where they used automated DNA sequencing for sequence analysis. The results of the sequence analysis of (T2DM) patients’ samples, we found: six missense mutations, one deletion mutation, and three silent mutations detected using BLAST in (NCBI). All mutations appeared at the same sites of the gene which controls the rate of genetic information transcription that indicates to have a relationship with (T2DM). These mutations were recorded on the (NCBI). The physicochemical properties of (TCF7L2) determined in the present study included; alpha-helical structure and 3-Dimension structure appeared contrast when compared with the gene template. Briefly, mutations effected (TCF7L2) which influences the structure, physicochemical properties of the protein, and the secretion of insulin hormone which maintains glucose level in blood.

Study of the Effect of Laser Energy on the Structural and Optical Properties of TiO2 NPs Prepared by PLAL Technique

Israa F. Hasan; Khawla S. Khashan; Aseel A. Hadi

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2022, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 11-19
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2021.3600.1031

Titanium dioxide nanoparticles were produced in this work by laser ablation of a high purity titanium objective immersed in distilled water. Optical and structural properties of the obtained TiO2 NPs using a Q-switched Nd: YAG laser of 1064nm wavelength with different laser energy (80, 100, 120, 140, and 160) mJ at 100 pulses was studied. The produced TiO2 NPs were characterized employing UV-VIS Spectrophotometer, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The obtained TiO2NPs showed a decrease in transmittance in the region of the UV spectrum and an increase in the visible spectrum region. The estimated optical band gap of the TiO2NPs was 3.89eV, 3.8eV, and 3.70eV at 80, 120 and 160mJ laser energy, respectively. The as-produced TiO2NPs appear to be a Brookite crystalline phase with the preferential orientation along (200) direction. The scanning electron microscopy assays showed that the TiO2 NPs have a cauliflower shape. Results show that with increasing the energy of laser pulse, the size of nanoparticles was increased noticeably. Where the particle size and its morphology are affected by laser energy.

Review Article

Synthesis, Bio-evaluation and Quantum Chemical Studies of Some Coumarin Derivatives

Yasameen Kadhim Hasan Al-Majedy; Samar M. Shakir

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2022, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 20-27
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2021.4164.1076

Coumarins are oxygen heterocyclic compounds that exist naturally and have a wide range of pharmacological properties, making them ideal as lead compounds for developing more powerful analogs. The modification of 4-methyl, 7-hydroxycoumarin by different reaction steps was done in this study to yield target compounds. They were characterized by different spectroscopic techniques (FT-IR and NMR), melting point and a thin layer chromatography. The microbiological activity of these compounds was investigated in a variety of bacterial and fungal species. Since the newly synthesized derivatives contain a variety of functional groups and may be microbiologically active, so the microbiological function of these derivatives in a variety of bacteria and fungi species was examined. In terms of the microorganism growth inhibition, the prepared compounds showed various levels of the activity. Antimicrobial properties have been discovered in newly synthesized derivatives. Density functional theory calculations of the synthesized coumarins were performed using molecular structures with optimized geometries.

Regular Article

Study of the Vacuum Pressure Sensing from the Electrical Resistance Response of Porous Silicon Fabricated via Photo-Electrochemical Technique

Noor S. Dawood; Mehdi Q. Zayer; Muslim F. Jawad

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2022, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 28-36
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2021.3763.1041

The manufacturing of vacuum sensors is critical to several vacuum-based applications. Porous silicon (PSi) was chosen as the vacuum sensor due to the possibility of moving air particles settled inside the pores while being put in the vacuum. The characteristics of porous silicon sensing to the evacuation of gases during vacuum was inferred by changing in the electrical resistivity. This work depends on the change in the electrical resistance of the PSi layers that was prepared via photo-electrochemical technique on the n-type (100) oriented silicon wafer. The surface topography of porous silicon is necessary to understand the morphological properties. Therefore, structural and morphological characterization of PSi samples were studied and analyzed using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) pattern. The etching process was carried out with various etching times, hydrofluoric acid (HF) concentration, and constant current density. The results showed that the pore size is increased as the etching time increased. The etching time produced pores of different sizes. The electrical resistance values were calculated after placing the sample in the vacuum system, starting from atmospheric pressure down to torr. The electrical properties of PSi indicate that electrical resistance gradually decreases with increasing vacuum pressure.

Determination of Interferon Gamma Protein in Serum of Breast Cancer Patients Using the ELISA

Noor E. Hassan; Abbas A. Mohammed

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2022, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 37-48
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2021.4295.1089

Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) is a cytokine involved in the induction and modulation of various immune responses. INF-γ has recently been associated with breast cancer and the stage of the disease. Also, it can be used as a cancer marker in determining disease activity. The ELISA test is a technique for identifying antigens in biological materials. The ELISA test is used for the detection of antibodies against target antigen through highly antibody-antigen interactions. In this study, the blood samples were taken from 88 Iraqis, 30 healthy controls, and 58 breast cancer patients (ranging from 35 to 52 years of age). During a visit to the AL Amal National Hospital for Cancer Treatment in Baghdad, Iraq, these patient samples were taken October 2020 - January 2021. Depending on the color changes to yellow, the results of this study were determined under wavelength of 450 nm to reveal the optical density (OD) via spectrophotometrically. The OD value is proportional to the amount of human IFN-γ in the sample of the healthy control and the cancer patients. The blood concentration of IFN-γ was substantially greater in women with breast cancer than in the control group (43.15 ± 4.68 pg/ml vs. 18.8 ± 3.89 pg/ml), respectively. Our results showed an elevation of Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) in most of the serum samples from women with breast cancer. The conclusions of this study are the main findings, INF-y protein was employed as a marker and assistance in diagnosing breast cancer based on the results of the calculation of protein concentration from the ELISA test.

Review Article

A Short Review on Preparation and Characterization of Iraqi Porcelanite Aggregate Concrete

Sahar I. Ahmed; Aqeel S. Al-Adili; Awham M. Hameed

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2022, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 49-58
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2021.3565.1028

Conventional concrete is recognized for its high density, which leads to a higher cost of building foundations and columns. Recently, many efforts have been made to produce lower density concrete with acceptable and applicable mechanical properties. One option can reduce the density of the conventional concrete by using partial or total replacement of porcelanite instead of natural gravel.  Porcelanite aggregate concrete can be prepared by adding different ratios of porcelanite and several other additives to the mortar, depending on the required density of the prepared porcelanite concrete. This study aims to assess porcelanite aggregate concrete components, manufacturing methods, and features of porcelanite aggregate concrete. Furthermore, this literature review aims to appraise and provide a complete vision of the testing program, including compressive strength, density, porosity, splitting tensile strength, and water absorption of porcelanite aggregate concrete. Also, this paper focuses on studying the development and applications of the porcelanite aggregate concrete, which will be presented in detail through this study.

Regular Article

The Biological Activity of Mycosynthesized Silver Nanoparticles Against some Pathogenic Bacteria

Rana A. Hikmet; Nehia N. Hussein

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2022, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 59-68
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2021.3963.1063

This study was carried out for the mycosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by Candida albicans supernatant.  All the isolates used in this study were taken from the patients who existed at Al-Elweya children's teaching hospital in Baghdad, Iraq. Mycosynthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by color visualization, ultraviolet-visible (UV) spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The UV-Vis spectroscopy examination has shown the highest absorbance (λmax) at the wavelength of 429 nanometers, which indicated the creation of silver nanoparticles. Furthermore, the results of the antibacterial potential of AgNO3 and AgNPs against Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus haemolyticus bacteria showed the highest effect of AgNO3 against Staphylococcus haemolyticus when the diameter of the inhibition zone reached (14.00 mm). In contrast, the lowest effect of the AgNO3 was with the diameter of the inhibition zone that reached (11.66 mm). The highest effect of the AgNO3 against Klebsiella pneumoniae by the diameter of the inhibition zone was reached (12.66mm), while the lowest effect was (9.00mm). The highest effect of the AgNPs against Klebsiella pneumoniae by the diameter of the inhibition zone reached (16.00mm), while the lowest effect was (13.00mm). The highest effect of the AgNPs against Staphylococcus haemolyticus by the diameter of the inhibition zone was reached (17.33mm). Where the lowest effect by the diameter of the inhibition zone was reached (14.00mm). Interestingly, this revealed that Staphylococcus haemolyticus was more susceptible to silver nitrate (AgNO3) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) than Klebsiella pneumoniae.

Study of the Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Refractory Mortars from Kaolin and Bentonite

Faten Hasan Gata; ENAS MHUI

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2022, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 69-79
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2021.3743.1039

In this paper, Mortar was prepared from medium alumina refractory grog, bricks crashed as a mean material to a particular size, and Iraqi raw (kaolin or bentonite) as binding materials. Refractory bricks were crushed, milled, then sieved to three particle sizes: fine as (1.18 >fine> 0) mm, medium as (2.36 > medium > 1.18) mm, crushed as (400 > coarse > 2.36) mm. Then these particle sizes were mixed with Iraqi raw kaolin or bentonite with selected ratios (10,15,20,30 and 40) %. Specimens were formed by the wetting method, then drying it at laboratory temperature for one day, followed by firing it at 1200 ℃. Results showed that the porosity of specimens decreases when increasing the clay ratio from 3-4% (kaolin or bentonite), and the bond strength between grog and clay increases when increasing the clay ratio from 2-3% (kaolin or bentonite). Also, the diametrical strength increases when increasing the clay ratio from 4-7% (kaolin or bentonite). The thermal shock results showed that K-mortar is better than B-mortar, depending on the results we obtained through the effect of temperature and diametrical strength. The SEM results showed that mortar structure was produced by adding 40% bentonite with small irregularly shaped. The mortar was produced by adding 40% of kaolin which possesses regular mullite crystals. Finally, the results of the test EDS that K-mortar were revealed in showed that there is no adsorption of carbon while B-mortar showed that there is adsorption of carbon atoms.

Polysulfone/TiO2 Thin Film Nanocomposite for Commercial Ultrafiltration Membranes

Saja H. Salim; Riyad H. Al-Anbari; Adawiya Haider

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2022, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 80-89
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2022.4528.1121

Due to low water fluxes, commercial ultrafiltration (UF) membranes used in water treatment need to be improved. High-quality UF membranes were fabricated from polysulfone (PSF)/titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanocomposite fibers as substrates using the spray pyrolysis method. The influence of nano-TiO2 on the UF nanocomposite membrane was studied. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), contact angle, and porosity were evaluated to characterize the mechanical characteristics of the membranes. The results show that adding TiO2 to the substrates increased the hydrophilicity and porosity of the substrates. The pure water flux of the Thin Film Nanocomposite (TFN) membrane manufactured utilizing a PSF substrate coated with 0.1 wt% TiO2 nanoparticles (denoted as Pc 0.1) improved at a rate of 35.28 l/m2.h, and for a PSF substrate coated with 0.2 wt% TiO2 nanoparticles (denoted as Pc 0.2) improved at a rate of 44 l/m2.h. Additionally, increasing TiO­2 nanoparticle loading to 0.1 and 0.2 wt. percent resulted in higher water flow over 20 l/m2.h PSF commercial membrane. The results of the UF performance show that Pc 0.2 membrane offered the most promising results, with a high-water flux than commercial membranes without nano-TiO2 (Pc).

Effects of Melatonin and Flaxseeds Oil on Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Parameters in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

Haitham Kadhim; Arwa Al-Shuwiakh; Noor M. Ali; Faruk H. Aljawad; Hashim M. Hashim; Ashwaq Q. Gorji

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2022, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 90-98
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2021.4049.1068

In patients with diabetes, chronic inflammation is characterised by the increase in C-reactive protein (CRP) and tumour necrosis alpha (TNF-α). The consumption of melatonin and flaxseed oil may improve insulin sensitivity and the effectiveness of diabetic medications. The current study investigated the efficacy of melatonin and flaxseed oil in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). It involved 43 patients with diabetes who were divided into 3 groups. The first group received a placebo (starch 50mg, n=13), the second group received melatonin (10mg per day, n=14) and the third group received flaxseed oil (1000mg per day, n=16), in addition to prescribed hypoglycaemic medication and a 12-week controlled diet. Fasting blood sugar (FBS), glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), oxidative stress and inflammatory parameters were measured in each group at 0, 6, and 12 weeks. Melatonin and flaxseed oil administrations resulted in a highly significant increase in glutathione (GSH) levels, a significant decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA), a significant increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the melatonin group and a significant increase in SOD in the flaxseed oil group. The melatonin group and the flaxseed oil group also showed a highly significant decrease in oxidised low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL).TNF-α was significantly reduced after the respective consumption of melatonin and flaxseed oil. Furthermore, flaxseed oil consumption resulted in a significant decrease in CRP; however, there was no significant difference in CRP due to melatonin consumption.