Publication Ethics and Malpractice Statement
The Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology (JASN) is dedicated to upholding the highest ethical standards in research publication. We adhere to the ethical behavior guidelines outlined by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) to ensure integrity and fairness in scientific publishing. The basic publishing ethics involved in the publishing process are summarized as follows:
Duties of Editors
Fair Play: The editor evaluates manuscripts for their intellectual content without regard to the nature of the authors or the host institution including race, gender, sexual orientation, religious belief, ethnic origin, citizenship, or political philosophy of the authors.
Confidentiality: The editor and any editorial staff must not disclose any information about a submitted manuscript to anyone other than the corresponding author, reviewers, potential reviewers, other editorial advisers, and the publisher, as appropriate.
Disclosure and Conflicts of Interest: Unpublished materials disclosed in a submitted manuscript must not be used in an editor's own research without the express written consent of the author(s).
Decision on Publication: The editor is responsible for deciding which of the articles submitted to the journal should be published. The validation of the work in question and its importance to researchers and readers must always drive such decisions.
Duties of Reviewers
Contribution to Editorial Decisions: Peer review assists the editor in making editorial decisions and through the editorial communications with the author may also assist the author in improving the paper.
Promptness: Any selected referee who feels unqualified to review the research reported in a manuscript or knows that its prompt review will be impossible should notify the editor and excuse himself from the review process.
Confidentiality: Any manuscripts received for review must be treated as confidential documents. They must not be shown to or discussed with others except as authorized by the editor.
Standards of Objectivity: Reviews should be conducted objectively. Personal criticism of the author is inappropriate. Referees should express their views clearly with supporting arguments.
Acknowledgement of Sources: Reviewers should identify relevant published work that has not been cited by the authors. Any statement that an observation, derivation, or argument had been previously reported should be accompanied by the relevant citation.
Please visit our Reviewer Guide for more details.
Duties of Authors
Reporting Standards: Authors of reports of original research should present an accurate account of the work performed, as well as an objective discussion of its significance.
Data Access and Retention: Authors may be asked to provide the raw data in connection with a paper for editorial review, and should be prepared to provide public access to such data.
Originality and Plagiarism: The authors should ensure that they have written entirely original works, and if the authors have used the work and/or words of others, that this has been appropriately cited or quoted.
Multiple, Redundant, or Concurrent Publication: An author should not in general publish manuscripts describing essentially the same research in more than one journal or primary publication.
Acknowledgement of Sources: Proper acknowledgment and attribution of the work of others must always be given.
Authorship of the Paper: Authorship should be limited to those who have made a significant contribution to the conception, design, execution, or interpretation of the reported study.
Disclosure and Conflicts of Interest: All authors should disclose in their manuscript any financial or other substantive conflict of interest that might be construed to influence the results or interpretation of their manuscript.
Fundamental Errors in Published Works: When an author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in his/her own published work, it is the author’s obligation to promptly notify the journal editor or publisher and cooperate with the editor to retract or correct the paper.
Please visit our Guide for Authors for more details.
Duties of the Publisher
Handling of unethical publishing behavior: In cases of alleged or proven scientific misconduct, fraudulent publication or plagiarism, the publisher, in close collaboration with the editors, will take all appropriate measures to clarify the situation and to amend the article in question. This includes the prompt publication of an erratum, clarification or, in the most severe case, the retraction of the affected work.
- Timely release of content: Publisher must publish all issues in the designated dates meantioned in the "About Journal" page.
Access to Journal Content: The publisher is committed to the permanent availability and preservation of scholarly research and ensures accessibility by partnering with organizations and maintaining our own digital archive.
Studies in Humans, Animals, and Plants
JASN is committed to publishing work that has been conducted in accordance with the highest ethical standards. For research involving humans, animals, plants, biological material, protected or non-public datasets, collections, or sites, authors must include a detailed 'Ethics Approval' section in their manuscript, confirming adherence to ethical guidelines.
Research Involving Humans
All studies involving humans must have been performed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and must include:
- The name(s) of the approving ethics committee(s) or institutional review board(s).
- The approval number or ID.
- A statement confirming that informed consent was obtained from all human participants.
Research Involving Animals
Research involving animals should adhere to the highest standard of care for the animals. Authors should comply with all relevant ethical guidelines and regulations, and provide the following information:
- Evidence that the research has followed international, national, and institutional guidelines for the humane treatment of animals.
- Approval of the research by an ethics review committee at the institution where the research was conducted. Details about the approval process, the names of the ethics committee(s) or institutional review board(s), and the approval number or ID should be included in the 'Ethics Approval' section.
- Justification for the use of animals, the species chosen, and the number of animals used.
- Details on housing conditions, feeding regimes, and environmental enrichment.
- Steps taken to minimize suffering, details of interventions including anesthesia used for surgical procedures, and methods of euthanasia.
Research Involving Plants
For studies involving plants, authors should comply with international, national, and/or institutional guidelines. Field studies should be conducted in accordance with local legislation, and the manuscript should include a statement specifying the appropriate permissions and/or licenses.
Non-compliance with the above-listed requirements may result in the manuscript being rejected by JASN. We reserve the right to ask for proof of compliance with ethical guidelines.
To uphold the integrity of research involving human, animals, or plants, the following ethical guidelines have been established for The JASN:
Research involving humans:
- Authors must conduct research in alignment with the Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humans.
- Manuscripts should adhere to the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals, considering representative human populations (sex, age, ethnicity) in research.
- Correct usage of terms such as sex and gender is crucial.
- Authors are required to obtain approval for all protocols from their Institutional Review Board (IRB) or a relevant ethics committee that complies with national and international guidelines.
- Details of this approval, including the institution, review board name, and permit number(s), should be provided during manuscript submission. Ethical approval must be procured prior to conducting the research.
- A statement confirming that informed consent was secured for experimentation with human subjects should be included in the manuscript, and the privacy rights of human subjects should always be respected.
Research involving animals:
- Animal experiments should be conducted in compliance with the ARRIVE guidelines, U.K. Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act, 1986 and associated guidelines, EU Directive 2010/63/EU for animal experiments, or the National Research Council's Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals.
- Authors should specify the sex of animals involved in the study and address the influence of sex on the results, where applicable.
- Experiments on vertebrates or regulated invertebrates should align with the ethical guidelines provided by the authors' institution and national or international regulations.
- If applicable, ethics permission or animal licenses should be stated. Authors must also confirm that efforts were made to minimize animal suffering, detailing the steps taken to achieve this.
Research involving plants:
- Plant studies should comply with the guidelines set by the authors’ institution and national or international regulations.
- If applicable, authors should provide a statement of permissions granted or licenses acquired.
- Authors must abide by the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Convention on the Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora.
By adhering to these guidelines, JASN seeks to ensure that all research it publishes respects ethical norms and protects the rights and welfare of human subjects, animals, and the biodiversity in plant studies.
Principles of Transparency
At the Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology (JASN), we hold ourselves to the highest standards of integrity and transparency in the academic publishing field. These principles guide our operations, from manuscript submission to the final publication. Our commitment to these standards ensures that authors, reviewers, and readers can fully trust the quality, authenticity, and reliability of our published content. Below, we've outlined our key principles of transparency for your reference.
Name of Journal: The Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology (JASN) has a unique name that is not easily confused with other journals.
Website: We maintain high ethical and professional standards, which are reflected in our website, JASN.
Peer Review Process: JASN implements a double-blind peer review process, ensuring both the authors and reviewers remain anonymous to each other. Detailed information about this process and other related policies can be found on the journal’s website at JASN Peer Review Process.
Governing Body: Our Editorial Board comprises esteemed professionals who are recognized experts in the areas covered by JASN. You can find the complete list of our editors, along with their affiliations, on the JASN Editorial Board page.
Identification of and Dealing with Allegations of Research Misconduct: Our Editor-in-Chief is committed to identifying and preventing the publication of papers where research misconduct, including plagiarism, citation manipulation, data falsification/fabrication, and others have occurred. Our dedicated team ensures all submissions adhere to the highest ethical standards.
Contact Information: To reach out to our editorial office for any queries or assistance, please visit the Contact Us page on our website.
Fundamental Errors in Published Works
JASN is committed to maintaining the highest level of integrity in the content we publish. If an author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in their published work, it is the author's obligation to promptly notify the journal editor and cooperate with them to correct the paper or retract it as necessary.
Corrections: If there are errors that do not affect the results or conclusions of the work, a correction (also known as an erratum) will be published. The correction procedure depends on the publication stage of the article, but in all circumstances, the original article's content is retained and the corrected version or a correction notice is linked to it.
Retractions: In cases where the scientific information is substantially incorrect, and particularly if the findings are unreliable, either as a result of misconduct (e.g., data fabrication) or honest error (e.g., miscalculation), the paper may be retracted. A retraction note detailing the reason for retraction will be published in a subsequent issue.
Expressions of Concern: In some cases, if there are doubts about the integrity or authenticity of the work, and these doubts are currently being investigated, an expression of concern may be published. This alerts readers to the potential problems with the article, pending the outcome of the investigation.
Additions: If substantial new information becomes available after publication, authors can propose an addition to be published, linked to the original article. The decision to publish the addition rests with the editor of the journal.
The process of handling corrections, retractions, expressions of concern, and additions is designed to be transparent, fair, and in accordance with the guidelines set by the COPE. JASN upholds these standards to ensure the ongoing reliability and accuracy of the scientific record.
JASN has a zero-tolerance policy towards plagiarism in any form. It is a severe breach of publication ethics, and any manuscript found to contain plagiarism will be rejected immediately.
Plagiarism includes but is not limited to the following:
Direct Plagiarism: Word-for-word copying of portions of another's writing without enclosing the copied passage in quotation marks and acknowledging the source in the appropriate scholarly convention. This is the most clear-cut type of plagiarism, where the exact wording of a source is used without attribution.
Paraphrasing Plagiarism: The paraphrasing or abbreviated restatement of someone else's ideas without acknowledging that another person's text has been the basis for the paraphrasing. While the words may be different, the ideas and concepts are those of another person, and failing to credit the original source is considered plagiarism.
False Citation: Material should not be attributed to a source from which it has not been obtained. This includes both attributing made-up information to a real source and attributing real information to a made-up source.
Fabrication or Falsification: False data: data that has been fabricated or altered in a laboratory or experiment; although not factually plagiarism, this is clearly a form of academic fraud and equally unacceptable.
Self-Plagiarism or Double Submission: The submission of the same or a very similar paper to two or more publications. While it may not seem like plagiarism, as the work is the author's own, this can be considered a form of plagiarism as it involves the representation of the same work as new and original, when it has in fact been published elsewhere.
All submitted manuscripts are thoroughly checked for plagiarism using professional plagiarism-checking software. Manuscripts with an unacceptable similarity index (above 20%) resulting from any form of plagiarism or research misconduct will be rejected immediately. More information about plagiarism prevention and violation can be found here.
Complaints and Appeals
JASN strives for the highest levels of academic integrity, fairness, and quality in the publication process. Despite this, we recognize that disputes and grievances may occasionally arise. We are committed to addressing such issues promptly, professionally, and transparently.
If an author, reviewer, or reader has any complaints, concerns, or appeals related to any aspect of our publication process, these should be directly addressed to the Editor-in-Chief. This can include, but is not limited to, matters pertaining to authorship, the peer-review process, alleged misconduct, or issues arising post-publication.
The Editor-in-Chief will investigate the issue by:
- Gathering information and documentation from all parties involved.
- Assessing the situation based on these findings.
- Proposing a course of action in line with the academic and ethical principles outlined by the COPE.
If required, the manuscript submission, peer-review process, or publication process can be paused until the issue is satisfactorily resolved.
In the event that the complaint or appeal involves the Editor-in-Chief, the process will be managed by the Editorial Board members. The most senior member of the board will lead the investigation, ensuring a fair and impartial process.
All complaints and appeals will be treated confidentially and respectfully. JASN is committed to ensuring a fair, unbiased, and transparent process for all parties involved. We ask all those who engage with the journal to uphold these principles.
Conflicts of Interest
It is mandatory for all authors to disclose any conflicts of interest that could potentially influence their work's impartiality, validity, or integrity. This includes financial, personal, or other relationships with organizations or individuals that have a direct or indirect connection with the subject matter or materials discussed in the manuscript. If there are no conflicts, authors should state that there are none. The disclosure of such information will not affect the editorial decision but will be made available to readers to ensure transparency.
JASN ensures the confidentiality of all submitted manuscripts. Except for individuals involved in the manuscript processing and preparation for publication (if accepted), such as editorial staff, corresponding authors, potential reviewers, and editors, no one else will have access to the manuscript. In cases of suspected misconduct, a manuscript may be shared with journal ethics committees and institutions that may require it for the resolution of the misconduct. The journal will follow the appropriate COPE flowcharts wherever necessary.
Correction and Retraction of Articles
Corrections to published articles are made with the authorization of the journal editor. The magnitude of corrections will be decided by the editors. For minor corrections, changes are made directly to the original article. For major corrections, the original article remains unchanged, while the corrected version is also published and linked to the original article. A statement indicating the reason for the significant change to the article will also be published. If necessary, the retraction of articles will be carried out according to COPE retraction guidelines.
Individuals who contributed to the development of a manuscript but do not qualify as authors should be acknowledged in the 'Acknowledgments' section. Organizations providing financial support, material resources, or other forms of support should also be acknowledged. Details of the funding organizations, including the grant numbers, should be provided. The names of the funding organizations should be written in full.
Handling Publication Misconduct
Any misconduct, which includes any violation of this journal policies, publication ethics, or any guidelines specified by COPE, is unacceptable and will be treated seriously. Any activities that compromise the integrity of the research or publication process are considered potential misconduct.
JASN follows the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines for handling research and publication misconduct as follows:
Receipt of Allegations: Any concerns about ethical misconduct can be reported to the Editor-in-Chief or the designated editor manager of JASN. The complainant should provide sufficient information to initiate an investigation.
Initial Assessment: The Editor-in-Chief, along with the editor manager, should review the allegations. If it appears to be a misunderstanding or a minor issue, a discussion with the author may be enough to resolve it.
Preliminary Investigation: If the concern is severe and credible, the Editor-in-Chief or the editor manager should conduct a preliminary investigation discreetly. This will involve collecting available documents and evidence and possibly interviewing the involved parties.
In-depth Investigation: If the preliminary investigation suggests a deeper issue, an in-depth investigation should be initiated. This may involve seeking the help of experts in the field and/or the author's host institution for help or, if necessary, involving legal counsel.
Findings and Action: If the investigation concludes misconduct has occurred, the following actions can be taken based on COPE guidelines:
Issue a correction if the misconduct does not impact the validity of the research.
Retract the paper if the misconduct involves data fabrication or falsification.
Report the findings to the author's institution, funding bodies, or regulatory bodies.
Prohibit the author(s) from submitting future manuscripts for a period of 5 years.
Publish a notice of misconduct if it serves a purpose for the readers and scientific community.
Confidentiality: Maintain the confidentiality of all involved parties during and after the investigation.
Fairness: Ensure a fair process where the alleged individual(s) has a chance to respond to the allegations. All investigations should be carried out without any prejudice.
Record-keeping: Keep a thorough record of the complaint, how it was investigated, and what actions were taken. This can be useful for future reference and for demonstrating the integrity of the process.
This procedure should be published on the JASN website so that all authors, reviewers, and readers are aware of how allegations of misconduct will be handled. It also ensures the transparency of the process. The procedure should be periodically reviewed and updated to ensure it remains current with evolving COPE guidelines and ethical standards.
JASN is deeply committed to maintaining high ethical standards in scholarly publishing. Our Publication Ethics and Malpractice Statement reflects our commitment to ensure the integrity, accuracy, and respectability of every article published.
The JASN expects all parties involved in the act of publishing: the authors, the journal editors, the peer reviewers, and the publisher, to thoroughly commit to these ethical guidelines. Any detected breach, whether discovered before or after publication, will be investigated thoroughly and addressed accordingly.
The main aim of JASN's ethical guidelines is not to impose sanctions but to ensure a fair and unbiased process that promotes the advancement of science and scholarly communication. We encourage all contributors to read and adhere to these guidelines to protect the integrity of the scientific record.
Remember, maintaining the ethical integrity of the science community is a collective responsibility. Let's uphold it together.