A concise summary of a research article, thesis, review, or other long report, highlighting the major points covered, concise description of the content, and key findings.
A section of a research article where the authors express recognition of the people, institutions, and funding bodies that contributed to the research.
Article Processing Charge (APC)
A fee that covers the costs associated with the review, editing, and online publication of an article in an open access journal.
Attribution of a research work to individuals who have made significant academic contributions to the study and are accountable for the results.
A method of peer review where the identity of the authors is not disclosed to the reviewers (single-blind) or where both the identities of authors and reviewers are kept confidential (double-blind).
A reference to a published or unpublished source, providing credit to the original work or idea.
Conflict of Interest
A situation in which a person or organization may be perceived to have two interests that are incompatible with each other, leading to potential bias.
Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0)
A public copyright license that enables the free distribution of a copyrighted work, with the stipulation that the original author is credited.
A team of experts, usually from the same field of study, who review and approve articles that are submitted to a journal for publication.
Permission or approval granted by an ethics review board for research involving human or animal subjects, after examination of the research proposal for compliance with ethical standards.
A measure of the frequency with which the average article in a journal has been cited in a particular period. It is often used as a proxy for the relative importance of a journal within its field.
Institutional Review Board (IRB)
A formally designated group that reviews and monitors research involving human subjects to ensure that it is ethical and protects the rights and welfare of the participants.
Words or phrases that describe the main topics of a paper. They provide a quick summary of the article and are useful for indexing purposes.
A publishing model that provides immediate, worldwide, barrier-free access to the full text of research articles without requiring a subscription to the journal in which these articles are published.
The process of subjecting an author's work to the scrutiny of other experts in the same field to check its validity and evaluate its suitability for publication.
The practice of using someone else's work or ideas without giving them proper credit, leading to the false perception that the plagiarist is the original author.
The practice of allowing readers to comment on an article after it has been published.
A version of a scientific paper that precedes formal peer review and publication in a scientific journal.
The stage of development in which a manuscript undergoes peer review, revision, and acceptance before it is formally published.
The final version of a manuscript that is ready for publication. Authors review proofs to check for any errors before the article is published online.
The extent to which a study can be independently repeated with the same methods and produce the same (or similar) results.
Adherence to ethical standards and professional codes of conduct in the performance and reporting of research.
The removal of a published paper from a journal, typically due to major errors or ethical issues.
Modifications made to a manuscript based on feedback received during the peer review process.
An initial review to assess a manuscript for basic standards and suitability for a journal.
The process of sending a manuscript to a journal to be considered for publication.
Additional data or files that support the content of a journal article but are not included in the main document, often made available for download.
Violation of Publication Ethics
Actions that breach the ethical guidelines of a journal, such as plagiarism, data fabrication, and duplicate publication.