Online ISSN: 2788-6867

About Journal

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology (JASN) is an interdisciplinary double blind peer-reviewed, open-access journal, issues four times a year. The journal was established by the Department of Applied Sciences/ University of Technology, Baghdad-Iraq, in 2021 and is scoped in a broad spectrum of science and engineering fields. Both theoretical and experimental contributions are welcomed. The journal publishes original letters, original full-length research articles, and review articles, while technical reports will not be accepted. The diversity of disciplines are suitable for publication...
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Journal Information

Publisher: University of Technology - IRAQ


Editor-in-chief: Prof. Dr. Adawiya J. Haider

Online ISSN: 2788-6867

Volume 3, Issue 1, Winter 2023, Page 1-184

Influence of Infill Pattern, Infill Ratio on Compressive Strength and Hardness of 3D Printed Polylactic Acid (PLA) Based Polymer

Ghaith Y. Dakhil; Rana M. Salih; Awham M. Hameed

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2023, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2022.4745.1141

In this article, the influence of infill ratio and infill pattern on the compressive strength and hardness of 3D printed polylactic acid (PLA) based polymer are studied. The fused deposition modelling (FDM) technique was used to produce the 3D-printed samples. In the current work, three specimens of each type have been tested with selected infill ratios (30, 50, and 70%) and infill patterns (line, gyroid, and trihexagon). A compression test was done using the general-purpose (EN772-1) manual compression testing machine for blocks, cubes, and cylinders by the standard specification (ASTM D695), and hardness shore-D was tested by using a hand-held durometer (Shore Instruments, Type D), by ASTM D2240-05 (2010) type D. The data were collected and processed. The results showed that the 70 percent infill ratio with a linear pattern had the highest compressive strength. On the other hand, the hardness test shows that the maximum hardness value was found at the base side of the specimens.

Assessing the Toxicity of Aluminum Oxide Nanoparticles (Al2O3 NPS) Prepared by Laser Ablation Technique on Blood Components

Tuqa Sabah; kareem H. Jawad; Nebras Essam

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2023, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 8-17
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2022.4746.1142

Along with its uses in a wide range of sectors, NP toxicity research was one of the fastest-growing areas of research, so the growing commercial applications brought aluminum oxide nanoparticles under the purview of toxicologists. This study shows the toxicity of Aluminum oxide Nanoparticles on blood components prepared using the pulsed laser ablation (PLA) Nd: YAG laser method. We confirmed the synthesis of aluminum Oxide nanoparticles by measuring color absorbance, UV-vis, scanning electron microscope techniques (SEM), and FTIR as characterization of Aluminum oxide Nanoparticles. The complete blood count (CBC) was used in the study of the toxicity effect of these nanoparticles on human blood parameters (in vitro). The results of hematology parameter platelet (PLT); hemoglobin (HGB–Hb); red blood cell (RBCs); white blood cell (WBCs); Count type white blood cells) are compared with the control groups, our results show no significant differences in levels of platelet (PLT); hemoglobin (HGB –Hb); red blood cell (RBCs); white blood cell (WBCs); Count type white blood cells) between the test groups when compared with control groups. This result that there indicates no toxic effect of Aluminum oxide nanoparticles in the hematology parameter (in vitro). This work is done for the first time to investigate the non-toxicity effect of these Al2O3 NPS on human blood parameters.

Experimental Study and Quantum Calculations for Spiramycin and Isosorbide Dinitrate as Corrosion Inhibitors

Thekra Abd Alkarim; Khalida F. Al-Azawi; Rana Afif Anaee

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2023, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 18-33
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2022.4763.1143

The investigation of the efficiency of two expired drugs, including Spiramycin and Isosorbide dinitrate, was done as corrosion inhibitors for aluminum in 0.1M HCl medium using the electrochemical method by Potentiostst at four temperatures (293, 303, 313, and 323 K) and 200 ppm as constant concentration for each drug. The results showed that these drugs gave good efficiencies equal to 98.836% and 94.285 % for Spiramycin and Isosorbide dinitrate at 293 K, respectively, by adsorption process on the metallic surface. They act as mixed-type inhibitors due to shifting corrosion potential either to active or noble direction. The corrosion data were measured and debated, where the corrosion current density was decreased after adding expired drugs to the corrosive medium due to inhibiting the cathodic and anodic reactions (i.e., the dissolution and reduction reactions). Using SEM exam, the inhibited surface of specimens was characterized to confirm the coverage of the surface by drug molecules.  The adsorbed layer by Spiramycin was better than that by Isosorbide dinitrate. Also, the Fourier transform infrared spectra were used to limit the active site attracted to the surface by adsorption that confirmed the attraction by hydroxyl and nitro groups, as illustrated by the mechanism of inhibition. In addition, the antibacterial activity of the inhibitors against some types of bacteria was tested to confirm the formation of an inhibition zone against bacteria. The quantum chemical parameters exhibited a good correlation with the inhibition efficiency.

Preparing and Investigating the Structural Properties of Porous Ceramic Nano-Ferrite Composites

Huda Jabbar; Enas Muhi; Tahseen Hussien

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2023, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 34-41
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2022.4804.1150

Highly porous kaolin ceramics composites were produced by adding space-holder materials during dry pressing. To increase the strength of porous kaolin ceramic composites different ratios of cobalt-nickel ferrite nanoparticles (5, 10, 15, and 20%) were added. The sol-gel auto-combustion method prepared the nano cobalt-nickel ferrite particles (CNF). Space-holder materials were removed by preheating, and solid specimens were produced by sintering. X-ray diffraction (X-RD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to examine the structural characteristics. Up to 47.05% porosity was achieved when 20% CNF was added to the porous kaolin ceramics composites. The results indicated that the higher percentages of nano CNF 20% decreased linear shrinkage and the loss of ignition by 4.4% and 30.4%, respectively. While increased apparent density and diametrical strength of 1.42 g/cm3, and 9.03MPa respectively. Diametrical strength nanoparticles increased the strength attributed to the formation of a secondary phase in the porous ceramics, improving the crack bridging mechanism.

Optical Properties of Lithium Niobate Nanoparticles Prepared by Laser Ablation in Different Surfactant Solutions

Marwa S. Alwazny; Raid A. Ismail; Evan T. Salim

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2023, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 42-50
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2022.4663.1151

In this paper, the optical, structural, and surface morphology of novel lithium-niobate (LN) colloidal synthesis by ablation in liquid using a pulse laser method has been studied and analyzed for the first time. LiNbO3 suspensions are synthesized using a Q-switch Nd-YAG laser with two target types, each with three different types of liquid environments: deionized water, ethanol, and acetone. The prepared colloidal is to go under further processes to be later used in the photonic application. The optical properties of the suspensions were evaluated by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Visible) measurements. The results showed that the colloidal had a transmission spectrum ranging between 88 to 98% for LN Target and 96 % to 98% for LN Z-cut wafer. The estimated energy gaps are (3.3-3.7 eV) for the prepared target and (4.1-4.3) for the LN Z-cut wafer, which gives good accordance with reported results in the range of ~ 3.7- 4 eV for all samples. In general, the Z-cut wafer target gives better results with ethanol based on optical properties. XRD measurements show the formation of a multi-phase with impurities for a prepared lithium niobate target and multi-phase LiNbO3 films with no impurities or a second phase for another Z-cut wafer. FESEM scan is measured for LiNbO3 films, and the particle size is about 20 and 23 nm.

Room Temperature 2-Fold Morphology Porous Silicon Impedance Matching Pesticide Sensor

Rasha B. Rashid; Alwan M. Alwan; Mohammed S. Mohammed

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2023, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 51-64
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2022.4841.1153

In this work, an investigation was conducted to study the effect of electrodes’ configuration of the double morphology macPSi on the performance of electrically matched impedance pesticides sensors. The purpose was to develop an efficient electrical sensor for the quantitative detection process of (Chlorpyrifos) pesticide in organic solvents. The effect of electrodes configuration of the front, front-back, and back coplanar electrodes on macPSi as based substrate was tested to select an optimum sensor metallization pathway.  The based efficient macPSi layer was fabricated using elevated laser irradiation power density at different periods. Morphological, optical, and electrical properties of the sensors were investigated using field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, and R-L-C measurement. The sensing method depended on measuring the resonance frequency shift as the organic solvent was exposed to the sensor’s surface. The sensor’s performance at various configurations and concentrations ppm was inspected at room temperature. The current findings revealed extremely low instabilities (less than 0.017 %), higher sensitivity, and a detection limit of 0.004ppm for top coplanar electrode configuration. The fabricated sensor is simple and low-cost for excellent quantitative pesticide detection.

Study of the Properties of YBCO Superconductor Compound in Various Preparation Methods: A Short Review

Amir A. Abdul Hussein; Adi M. Abdul Hussein; Noor A. Hasan

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2023, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 65-79
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2022.4867.1156

Superconductors have entered into many applications and advanced technological fields, due to their excellent properties identified by zero resistance and expelling the magnetic field applied to them. Superconductivity is a viable technology to prevent energy losses contributed by electrical resistivity. Also, the magnetic flux is repelled entirely out of the body of superconducting material which makes the Meissner Effect. High-Temperature Superconductors (HTS) have become the focus of researchers and scientists. This is because it uses liquid nitrogen "LN" in cooling, which gives it significant critical temperatures compared to traditional materials based on liquid helium "LHe" in cooling. From this point of view, began to employ these materials in most disciplines and modern technologies. In this article, the phenomenon of Superconductivity will define with explain its most prominent characteristics and focus on the preparation of the HTS (Yttrium-Barium-Copper-Oxide) compound (Abbreviated as YBCO) in different methods "The Sol-Gel and Citrate Pyrolysis Methods", to creating ultrafine superconducting (Y-123) powders. Generally known that by adopting any preparation technique, the superconducting transition temperature (Tc) value of ≈ 92 K could be achieved in the bulk samples. The Citrate Pyrolysis method is a unique route to prepare reactive precursor mixtures through an ignition process of a concentrated aqueous solution including metallic ions of stoichiometric composition. This procedure enables to synthesize of highly homogeneous and fine powders for functional materials, in comparison to the Sol-gel technique.

Antioxidant Properties of Galangin with β-cyclodextrin: An in Vitro and in Vivo

Zainab S. Abbas; Ghassan M. Sulaiman; Majid S. Jabir; Hamdoon A. Mohammed; Salman A. A. Mohammed

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2023, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 80-89
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2022.4876.1157

Galangin, a non-toxic phytochemical, is known to have a variety of therapeutic uses. This study looked into the role of inclusion complexes of galangin/β-cyclodextrin in increasing antioxidant activity over pure galangin. The role of this inclusion complex in increasing antioxidant activity in comparison to pure galangin. In this study, hydrogen peroxide assays were used in vitro. Galangin demonstrated concentration-dependent scavenging action in the 2-50 µg mL-1 range, with the highest level of activity possible 92.00% at 50 µg mL-1. In pure galangin, a decrease of 85.00% was observed. The ferric thiocyanate lipoperoxidation method was clarified by using galangin and galangin/β-cyclodextrin and demonstrated concentration-dependent suppress lipid peroxidation in the 2-50 µg mL-1 range, at 50 µg mL-1, the highest level of activity was 70.00%. A 60.00% decrease in pure galangin was observed. Xanthine oxidase activity using uric acid was given. The co-incubation of galangin and galangin/β-cyclodextrin inhibited xanthine oxidase activity in a concentration-dependent manner in 2-50 µg mL-1 range, at 50 µg mL-1, the highest level of activity was 90.00 %. Pure galangin showed an 82.00 % decrease. There were no significant differences in absolute weight of mice organs and hematological parameters between pure galangin and galangin/ β-cyclodextrin when used concentration 80 mg kg-1, compared to control group. According to the findings, galangin combined with β-cyclodextrin has excellent properties as a therapeutic agent and food supplement.

Biosynthesis and Optimization of PolyHydroxyalkanoate (PHA) Production by Acinetobacter lwoffii Isolate

Karrar K. Hameed; Iman H. Gatea; Amal A. Hussein

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2023, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 90-103
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2022.4970.1167

Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is an eco-friendly polymer that has various important biomedical uses, as well as biodegradability, drug delivery, and medical implants. It is a kind of polyester synthesized by various microorganisms as energy reserve material under inappropriate conditions. This study focused on testing wastecooking oilas the source of carbon to optimize PHA production. The tests included the most important environmental components within the culture medium affecting the growth of the bacterial isolate under the experiment and its ability to produce a polymer. Results revealed that the cultivation of Acinetobacter lwoffii, pre-isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated soil, under optimum conditions showed the highest productivity after 72 hours. Corn oil waste as the carbon and urea as the source of nitrogen were discovered to be the best nutritive sources for concentrated PHA production, with, 2% and 0.5 g/L as the best carbon and nitrogen sources concentrations, respectively. Through the results, it was found that there is an important role for the change, both qualitatively and quantitatively, in the components of the nutrient medium and the surrounding condition in increasing the efficiency of isolation, as it had a significant role in increasing the efficiency of the isolate. There was a significant increase in the PHA content ranging from 10 to 75% and the production of biomass to 3.6 g/L. respectively. Finally, this study concluded that the use of bacterial isolate in the production of PHA can contribute to solving the critical problem of environmental pollution caused by the use of industrial plastic and replacing it with environmentally friendly and low-cost materials.

Statistical Analysis of Mechanical Strength and Dielectric Breakdown of Polyester Nano-Alumina Composites

Amani Z. Al Ani; Shihab A. Zaidan

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2023, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 104-114
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2022.4973.1168

The mechanical and electrical properties relation are very important, especially for brittle material. Nano Alumina-unsaturated polyester (PS/Al2O3) composites were prepared by casting PS with different percentages (1, 2, 3, and 4 wt%) of Nano alumina. Electrical breakdowns caused cracks to form around the breakdown point, and the length and quantity of cracks increased with dispersed powder added increases. The research involved determining Weibull modulus from an electrical strength test, and mechanical strength by piston-on-three-ball test. The results showed that Weibull modulus and dielectric breakdown increase during the rate of rising voltage (RRV) increases, especially 5 kV/s. the maximum Weibull modulus measured by the electrical breakdown was at a high RRV is 34.58 (PS/Al2O3). High RRV leads to electromechanical breakdown and electrothermal strength at low RRV. While the Weibull modulus by the piston-on-three-balls test is lower than the Weibull modulus calculated by electrical strength. Therefore, this mechanical test is more accurate in identifying defects that fail due to an increase in the affected area of the applied stress. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images showing the homogeneous distribution of the powders within the polymeric matrix. Some pores were present in the structure of the composite despite the measures taken to increase the dispersion using ultrasound waves. Those pores caused fluctuating results in all electrical and mechanical tests.

Effect of Atmospheric Conditions on Ultraviolet Photoconductivity of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles

Mohammed A. Ibrahem; Emanuele Verrelli; Khue T. Lai; Fei Cheng; Mary O’Neill

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2023, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 115-123
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2022.5000.1169

ZnO nanoparticles have gained considerable interest lately due to their remarkable optical and electrical properties, which enable them to have the potential to be the next generation of transparent semiconductors. However, interactions with atmospheric water and surface carbonates limited and seriously threatened device stability and dependability. The UV photoconductivity of the ZnO NP films is heavily influenced by oxygen adsorption and organic species in the ambient air. The stability of the ZnO photodetector prepared, annealed, and tested in a nitrogen atmosphere was improved in terms of current magnitude and sustaining photocurrent cycles. ZnO NPs films processed in the air show considerable change in surface composition compared to nitrogen indicated by surface organic complexes. In an oxidized manufacturing environment, the compounds above were effectively eliminated while partly degraded in nitrogen. We find that the ZnO NPs surface is highly reactive with ambient CO2, generating surface carbonates groups that promote electrically active surface states.

Oncolytic NDV-AMHA1 Strain Effective Against Glioblastoma Cancer Cells

Zahraa A. Kadhim; Ghassan M. Sulaiman; Ahmed M. Al-Shammari; Hamdoon A. Mohammed; Salman A. A. Mohammed

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2023, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 124-136
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2022.5016.1171

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most life-threatening types of cancer that is difficult to treat. The search for effective yet safe therapy is progressing and non-conventional therapies such as using viruses as a smart and selective agent against cancer are promising. The aim of the study was the presence of a reliable method to use Newcastle disease virus (NDV) as an oncolytic agent against GBM, which attempted to propagate the NDV in laboratory experiments. Ahmed Majeed Hamza Al-Shammari-1 (AMHA1) attenuated strain of NDV was propagated in chicken embryos. The virus's tittered in Vero-slamed cells to determine the infective dose. MTT cell viability assay was used to investigate the killing effects of NDV on Ahmed-Majeed-Glioblastoma-Multiforme-2005 (AMGM5) human glioblastoma cancer cells derived from Iraqi patients. The infected cells' morphology was studied to measure the cytolytic effect of the NDV in cancer cells. Results showed that After 24 to 72 hours of inoculation, all of the chicken embryos died when the AMHA1 Iraqi NDV strain was injected. Cell viability assay showed that the NDV-AMHA1 strain has cytotoxicity at MOI of 0.1, 0.5, and 1 for 72 hours of exposure to cancer cells. The morphological analysis showed that NDV induces cell death in the infected cells with both necrotic and apoptotic features. In conclusion, the study focuses on the propagation of the oncolytic NDV as a biological agent capable of overcoming treatment resistance through infecting and replicating inside cancer.

Study of the Effects of Solution Types on Concentration of Iron Oxide by Pulsed Laser Ablation in Liquid

Rusul Al-Obaidy; Adawiya J. Hadier; Sharafaldin Al-Musawi; Norhana Arsad

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2023, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 137-150
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2022.5025.1172

In this work, the development of nanosystems by Pulsed Laser Ablation in Liquid (PLAIL) is of considerable importance to expand their biomedical applications, such as drug delivery. In the present study, we focus on the conditions of the preparation  Nd: YAG laser wavelength 266 nm and two different laser fluency (10,28) J/cm2 to control the concentration and size stability of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) prepared by PLAIL. The characteristics of SPION are investigated by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) spectra which showed strong peaks of Fe and O. Magnetic characteristics of iron oxide nanoparticles indicated superparamagnetic properties of SPION and suitable physical stability. Optical and chemical properties of SPION were investigated using UV-visible spectra (UV) and infrared Fourier transformed spectroscopy (FTIR). .  Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to obtain surface morphological studies of SPION.. Results showed that SPION is the only cubic shape, the peak absorption shifted toward short wavelengths with optimum concentration to the SPION in double deionized water (DDW) and in Acetone (0.75,0.33) mg/ml respectively, at high laser fluence 28 J/cm2, and this enhancement of value is due to particle size and color resultant in a solution. Eventually,, this product has the optimal SPION specialty ratio of SPION in the DDW solution at 53.89%, and the size is very suitable for drug delivery applications.

Study of the Physicochemical and Microbiological Properties of Mozzarella Cheese Coated with Edible Casings Subsidized with Green Tea

Ihab M. Abdulhadi; Mahdi Abbas Shakak; Kifah S. Doosh

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2023, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 151-163
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2022.5086.1175

In this study, mozzarella cheese covered with edible and biodegradable films was manufactured from whey proteins reinforced with green alcoholic extract to preserve the environment from degradable plastics surrounding it. Two types of mozzarella cheese were manufactured. The first made unwrapped mozzarella cheese (control sample), and the second treatment was mozzarella cheese coated with whey proteins fortified with green tea at a concentration of (3%) (envelope sample), and its effect on prolonging the storage life of the processed cheese was evaluated by chemical and microbiological tests, as the moisture content on the first day was 53.26 and 53.30% for each of the control sample and envelope sample, respectively. Moreover, this percentage was decreased with significant differences on the last day (P≤0.05) between the two samples to 47 and 51.06%, respectively. As for the pH decreased during the storage period, and it was found that there was a development in acidity during storage and for the two samples with insignificant differences(P≤0.05), The Acid value (AV) for both control and envelope sample was 0.13 (mEq / 100 gm fat). And the value of AV increased with significant differences in storage samples, control sample, and envelope sample until it reached 2.0 and 1.1 (mEq / 100 gm fat). As for the microbiological tests, the total number of bacteria on the day of storage was 3.5 x 102 and 2.7 x 102. control and envelope samples, respectively, decreased at of the storage phase 3-6 logarithmic cycles in the envelope sample compared to the control sample. The numbers of Gram-negative E. coli bacteria were lower by two logarithmic cycles in the envelope sample compared to the control sample. The envelope sample was free of lipolytic bacteria, proteins, Salmonella sp, yeasts, and samples, for the length of the storage period.

Extraction and Purification of Pullulanase from Local Mushrooms

Dalal S. Bedan

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2023, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 164-173
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2022.5123.1177

Pullulanase is defined as an extracellular carbohydrase enzyme responsible for the hydrolysis of pullulan into maltotriose. Pullulanase can be extracted from Agaricus bisporus edible mushroom and concentrated by dialysis tube using Tris-HCl buffer. This enzyme was purified by different ratios of ammonium sulphate; the optimal ratio was 30%. It can be purified by ion exchange using a DEAE-cellulose column with a final yield of 5.25 and a purification fold of 4.38. Following Sephadex G-100 gel filtration with a yield of 2.60 and purification fold of 5.0, the total activity of the enzyme reached 160IU and the specific activity was 14.5 U/mg. This study was concerned with estimating the optimum pH and temperature of pullulanase, and it recorded an optimal pH of 7, and the optimal temperature was 60°C. The enzyme was more stable at pH 8 and 70°C; the incubation period was also determined, and it appeared the most appropriate period was 30 minutes. CaCl2 and ZnCl2 were activator metal ions. Mercaptoethanol in different concentrations was the greatest inhibitor of pullulanase. One of the problems arising in the surrounding area is that much of the environmental pollution consists of starchy food waste. Pullulanase can degrade the glycosidic linkage of pullulan or starch present in the starch waste. The objective of this study is to produce enzymes like pullulanases to participate in minimizing environmental pollution through the degradation of starch waste as a biotechnological application. The conclusion of this study is that pullulanase can be produced from readily available, safe, and low-cost sources such as mushrooms.

Role of Microalgae in Environmental Biotechnology to Remove Heavy Metals

Muzhda Q. Qader; Yahya A. Shekha

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2023, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 174-184
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2022.5346.1183

The objective of the study is to evaluate the role of microalgae in heavy metal remediation (Pb and Cd). Three microalgae species were used (Tetradesmus nygaardi, Scenedesmus quadricauda, and Coelastrella sp.) with four concentrations of both tested heavy metals (lead and cadmium) were, (5, 15, 35, and 50 ppm). Samples were analyzed every 4th day during the experimental study for 20 days. The result showed that during experimental days the lower concentration (5ppm) has the highest reduction percent for Pb and Cd by all microalgal species (Tetradesmus nygaardi, Scenedesemus quadricauda, and Coellastrella sp.). Whereas Coellastrella sp. had the highest efficiency for Pb and Cd uptake in all concentrations (5, 15, 35, and 50 ppm) for Pb removal percent were (86.8%, 86%, 82.85%, 78%) respectively, while for Cd were (84%, 80.66%, 77.14%, 76.94%) respectively. The lead had a higher reduction percent for all concentrations (5-50ppm) in comparison with cadmium by all microalgal strains during 20 days of the experiment. The removal of Cd and Pb by microalgal strains by order, Coellastrella sp. > Tetradesmus nygaardi > Scenedesemus quadricauda.



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