Online ISSN: 2788-6867

Volume 1, Issue 3

Volume 1, Issue 3, Summer 2021, Page 1-95

Regular Article

Antioxidant Activities of Resveratrol Loaded Poloxamer 407: An In Vitro and In Vivo Study

Ali A. Al-Jubori; Ghassan M. Sulaiman; Amer T. Tawfeeq

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2021, Volume 1, Issue 3, Pages 1-12
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2021.3809.1046

Resveratrol (RES) is a bioactive molecule with potent antioxidant properties, and it constitutes an essential component of herbal medicine. This study was designed to use a nano-syntheses approach to encapsulate RES in Poloxamer 407 nanoparticles. This type of nano-construction has been employed in a variety of biological applications, both in vitro and in vivo. The contribution of this nano-construct is to increase antioxidant activity over the pure RES was investigate. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), and hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging assays were utilized in vitro. RES-loaded poloxamer 407 showed concentration-dependent scavenging action in the range of 20-80 µ, with a maximum activity of 80.1% at 80 µ Whereas pure RES had a decrement of 61.7%. While the activity of positive control (Vit. C) was 93.2%. The magnitude of blood hemolysis examination was 3.9% at 80 µ That may indicate RES-loaded poloxamer 407 provide significant red blood cell protection. The pure RES did not prevent the appearance of abnormal cells (echinocytes), and that was cured by RES-loaded poloxamer 407. Finally, the safety of RES-loaded poloxamer 407 was assessed in vivo. Male mice were invested to detect the functions of their liver and kidney. A histopathological study was included as well. The findings showed that RES-loaded poloxamer 407 might have superior characters as a drug delivery system, nutritional supplements, and may be used in pharmaceutical products.

Synthesis and Physical Characterization of PMMA/PP and PMMA/ PAN Composites for Denture Applications

Hassan Adnan Sharhan; Zaynab Naif Rasheed; Jawad Kadhim Oleiwi

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2021, Volume 1, Issue 3, Pages 13-23
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2021.3759.1040

This study involves on manufacture of denture base resin with advanced physical properties through the addition of two type of synthetic fibers used as reinforcing materials polypropylene (PP) and Poly acrylonitrile (PAN). In this research, groups of three samples of both PMMA/PP and PMMA/PAN composites were prepared with the selected fiber weight ratios of 1.5, 3.5, 5.5 and 7.5 %Wt. Physical properties such as water absorption, thermal conductivity and density were evaluated under normal conditions. The chemical bond structure was also investigated for all samples using FTIR test. The results showed that when fibers ratio increased until 7.5 %Wt., the water absorption increases, as well for each fiber which was over 0.6% compared to the 0.3% of the neat sample. A noticeable decrease in the thermal conductivity property from 0.33 W/m.K for PMMA/PP and 0.24 W/m.K for PMMA/PAN comparing to 0.46 W/m. K of the neat polymer was revealed. As for the density results, it was found that when the fibers ratios were increased, the sample density slightly decreased and reached 1.09 g/cm3 for PMMA/PP and 1.1 g/cm3 for PMMA/PAN at the maximum fibers rate. FTIR results indicated there was no new peaks appeared after reinforcement with both fibers. This could refer to the good physical bond between the mixtures, no new material formed.

The Effect of LRP-1 Gene and Mir-205 on Cardiovascular Disease in Iraqi Patients with Familial Hypercholesterolemia

Zinah A. Ghareeb; Hiba Abdel-Hassan AlKhafaji; Mohanad K. Aneed Al-Saedi

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2021, Volume 1, Issue 3, Pages 24-31
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2021.3691.1036

Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a genetic disorder characterized by autosomal inheritance in genes related to LDL-C metabolism, with the major clinical features of hyper-LDL-cholesterolemia and premature coronary artery disease. (LRP-1) is a member of the LDLR family. It is a membrane receptor with scavenging and signaling properties. LRP-1 interacts with a wide range of extracellular ligands as well as intracellular scaffolding and signaling proteins, which makes it important in crucial clinical circumstances like cardiovascular disease, cancer, and neurological illnesses. Mir-205 uses these molecules as biomarker for cardiovascular diseases. This study aims to measure gene expression for the LPR-1 gene and its relationship to the development of cardiovascular disease in familial hypercholesterolemia and non-familial hypercholesterolemia. Also, it studies the indication whether mir-205 regulates the action of the LRP-1 gene in terms of increasing or decreasing gene expression. However, the available methods for measuring LRP1 levels are direct and quantitative using Poly Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) in real time, not at its ends. In the present study, blood was isolated from 150 individuals distributed into three groups: Group 1 included: 50 samples from a healthy group; Group 2: 50 samples from non-Familial hypercholesterolemia patients; Group 3:50 samples Familial hyperchol-esterolemia patients. The results showed that LRP1 protein expression was significantly reduced in patients with F.H compared with normal control in a small cohort from an Iraqi population. This pilot study suggests that the reduced LRP1 protein expression may be associated with cardiovascular disease progression.

Physical Investigations of Titanium Dioxide Nanorods Film Prepared by Hydrothermal Technique

Reem A. Saleh; Odai N. Salman; Mohammed O. Dawood

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2021, Volume 1, Issue 3, Pages 32-41
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2021.3513.1024

In this work, well-oriented and homogeneous titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanorods (NRs) was synthesized by hydrothermal method. In this method, vertically aligned arrays of TiO2 were built  on the conductive Fluorine–Tin–Oxide (FTO) glass substrate. Nanoparticles (NRs) of TiO2 showed a tetragonal shape with a square top face, according to the image of the field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). The TiO2 NRs are polycrystalline, having two phases: rutile and anatase, according to X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The optical properties of a TiO2 nanorods arrays were examined, including transmittance, absorption coefficient, and energy bandgap. An optical energy band gap of 3.18 eV was obtained. According to the photoluminescence emission measurement, the energy bandgap was 3.3 eV. For further study of the optical properties of the TiO2 Nanorods films, reflectance spectrum was used as a function of wavelength to estimate the value of the energy bandgap and its value was 3.45 eV. By comparing the values ​​obtained from the three methods, it is found that they are closely alike, which confirms the formation of the TiO2 nanostructure.

Cytotoxicity Effect and Antibacterial Activity of Al2O3 Nanoparticles Activity against Streptococcus Pyogenes and Proteus Vulgaris

Anwar Sabri Jawad; Qasim N. Thewaini; Sharafaldin Al-Musawi

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2021, Volume 1, Issue 3, Pages 42-50
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2021.3944.1061

Aluminum oxide, often known as Al2O3, is a chemical compound of aluminum and oxygen with the formula Al2O3. It's the most common of many aluminum oxides, known as aluminum (III) oxide. The study investigates the cytotoxicity and antibacterial effects of Aluminum oxide nanoparticles (Al2O3-NPs) in different cells and bacteria. Different characterization methods such as dynamic light scattering (DLS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) have been used to evaluate morphologies and physicochemical properties of Al2O3-NPs. MTT technique is used for determining NPs cytotoxicity. The size distribution of Al2O3-NPs was 68 ± 12 nm in diameter, while the zeta potential was (-36 ± 10 mV). There is no toxicity by using the MTT assay, as well as showed antibacterial activity was formed at 200 µg/mL, while the higher antibacterial activity was occurring at (18 ± 0.2) and (17 ± 0.1) for Proteus Vulgaris and Streptococcus pyogenes, respectively. The findings confirmed that the Al2O3-NPs have small dimensions, high stability, and increased antibacterial activity.

Primer and Probe Designing to Detect SNP rs 4073 in Interleukin-8 Gene in Iraqi Patients with Bronchial Asthma

Media F. Ali Jan; Basima Q. Hassan Al-Saadi; Hiba M. Abdel-Hassan Al-Khafaji; Mohanad K. Aneed Al-Saedi

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2021, Volume 1, Issue 3, Pages 51-57
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2021.3542.1034

Asthma is one of the most prevalent non-communicable illnesses, and it has a significant influence on the quality of life for many people. Asthma is now thought to be a multifaceted condition, with interactions between genetic susceptibility, host factors, and environmental exposures increasingly being blamed for its pathogenesis. In respiratory illness, interleukin-8 plays a critical function due to promoting phagocytosis and inducing angiogenesis. Also, identification and finding out the effect of these SNPs and how it can be dangerously related or contribute to a Bronchial Asthma disease. However, the available methods for detecting interleukin-8 gene polymorphism are direct and quantitative using Poly Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) in real time. Whole blood was isolated from 100 patients with asthma and 50 healthy individuals. The results of polymorphism in single nucleotides showed an essential role in the development of asthma and that the presence of these SNPs has a role in increasing the susceptibility of individuals to asthma, as the variation in the TT genotype at the site followed by the AT genotype at the same site shows high-risk damage.

Preparation and Characterization of Electron Transfer Layer for Perovskite Solar Cells

Adam K. kadhim; Atheer I. Abd Ali; Mohammad R. Mohammad

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2021, Volume 1, Issue 3, Pages 58-63
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2021.3521.1025

In this paper, we present triple cation perovskites because it has excellent stability and PV performance. To characterize the triple-cation perovskite solar cells, X-ray diffraction, Field emission scanning electron microscope, and Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy were used. The performance of perovskite solar cells was improved by reducing graphene oxide/bismuth oxide mixed mesoporous titanium dioxide as an effective electron transport layer. The perovskite layer deposited onto modified TiO2 layer showed a larger grain size with better crystalline nature. The optimum device has fabricated at room temperature without a glove box and obtained a power conversion efficacy of 17%.

Correlation of MicroRNAs-122a Gene Expression with Diabetic for Iraqi Patients

Noor Younus; Maha Altaee; Zahraa Abdul-Munim Sharba

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2021, Volume 1, Issue 3, Pages 64-72
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2021.3789.1043

This study was carried out to describe the gene expression of the micro RNA 122a gene with the development of diabetes in Iraq. The difference in gene expression between patients and healthy controls was properly considered. In this study, blood was isolated from 121 individuals divided into two groups as follows: 80 samples of diabetic patients and 41 samples from a healthy control. miRNA was isolated and transformed into cDNA, and the expression of mi122a was measured by qRT-PCR. The researchers looked at the relationship between age and gender and the occurrence of diabetes, as well as how they compared to controls. When comparing the mean gene expression level (Ct) of patient groups to the corresponding Ct means in the control group, the results revealed a discrepancy. Also the gene expression folding (2-∆∆Ct) of the micro RNA 122a gene reflect differences in the expression, the level of micro RNA 122a was (20.504) in patients with diabetes compared to control groups with significant differences. On the other hand, gender and family history showed a significant difference between patients and health monitors. For age and type of diabetes, they showed a significant difference between patients and health monitors. Our results indicate that diabetes can affect all ages in both males and females. This study aims to correlate the expression of miRNA 122a with the occurrence of diabetes in the Iraqi population.

Investigating the Impact of Tilt Angle, Orientation, and Configuration on PV System Performance Using PVSyst Software

Saad A. Tuama; Omar A. Abdulrazzaq; Shaima K. Abdulridha; Noora Faiq

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2021, Volume 1, Issue 3, Pages 73-85
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2021.3916.1059

This paper introduces a comprehensive investigation on the performance of on-grid 2.7kWp residential scale PV system in Baghdad location with aid of PVSyst software simulation. The study focused on the impact of a wide range of PV tilt angles, orientations, and various configurations on the productivity of the system. Such comprehensive study was never investigated in literature over Baghdad city before, up to our knowledge. In this simulation, azimuth angle is varied from -90° to 90° with a constant 30° tilt angle, then tilt angle varied from 0° to 90° with a constant 0° azimuth angle. Results revealed that the 30° tilt angle with 0° azimuth angle is giving the best PV performance among all other angles. It is also shown that small change in azimuth (up to 30°) has unnoticeable effect on the PV performance. The study concluded that small offset in azimuth is considered acceptable from the design side of view. It is also noticed that small tilt angles boost the productivity in summer months, while large tilts boost the productivity in winter months. But the optimum angle that gives the highest productivity over the whole year is 30°. These results are explained by the sun latitude throughout the months of the year. In addition, 2-seasons method configuration showed a better performance compared to all of the fixed configurations with an increase in energy production of ~5%. However, the best performance was obtained with the tracking configuration with energy production of 25% more than all of other configurations.

Evaluation The Antibacterial Activity of Biosynthesis Silver Nanoparticles by Lactobacillus Gasseri Bacteria

Raghad Jabbar; Nehia N. Hussein

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2021, Volume 1, Issue 3, Pages 86-95
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2021.3898.1057

Biosynthesis of AgNPs is a new approach in the field of nanotechnology with optimistic implementation in medicine, food control, and pharmacology. In this study, the silver nanoparticles were produced by Lactobacillus gasseri filtrate. The production of AgNPs was confirmed by the color change from yellow to brown. Using UV visible spectrophotometer at 424 nm wavelength, and X-ray diffraction, it was found that the size of the synthesized particles was 58.5 nm after applying Scherrer’s equation. The inhibitory activity of silver nitrate on the growth of some pathogenic isolates was studied Staphylococcus haemolyticus Gram positive, and Klebsiella pneumoniae Gram negative. The highest inhibitory diameter was 14.6 mm at 100% concentration (stock) against Staphylococcus haemolyticus bacteria was followed by that of Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteria with an average inhibition zone diameter reached 13.6 mm at 100% concentration. The highest effect was of AgNPs on the growth of Staphylococcus haemolyticus bacteria, as it found the average diameter of the inhibition zone reached to 29.3 mm, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae with the average diameter of the inhibiting zone it was 22.6 mm at 100% concentration (stock). This study showed AgNPs have more antibacterial activity against Gram positive bacteria than Gram negative bacteria. The importance of this study lies in testing the effectiveness of by Lactobacillus gasseri bacteria in the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and studying their antibacterial activity on pathogenic bacteria.