Online ISSN: 2788-6867

Volume 1, Issue 2

Volume 1, Issue 2, Summer 2021, Page 1-77


Regular Article

Characterization of Treated Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Antibacterial Properties

Noor Ali; Ali Taha; Duha S. Ahmed

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2021, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 1-9
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2021.11636

In the present study, the synthesized Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) were chemically treated with a mixture of acids to produce functionalized MWNTs. The functionalized MWCNTs were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction Analysis (XRD), Zeta potential and Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM). The X-ray diffraction reveals the MWCNTs average crystal size of the R-MWCNTs and F-MWCNTs were about (3.27 and 3.19) nm, respectively. FESEM images show the formation of R-MWCNTs that appears as cylindrical tubes and aggregated tubes with each other, while the F-MWCNTs appear as less aggregated and tangled clusters than R-MWCNTs. Zeta potential measurements showed that the measurement of the R-MWCNT shows a low negative value -9 mV and F-MWCNT, it was found that the zeta potential value is up to -29 mV. The antibacterial activity was studied against E. coli and P. aeruginosa bacteria, and indicated the highest growth inhibition zones (IZ) of F-MWCNTs as compared with R- MWCNTs against E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively.

Influence of the Voltage on Pore Diameter and Growth Rate of Thin Anodic Aluminium Oxide (AAO) Pattern on Silicon Substrate

Khaled Chahrour; Poh Choon Ooi; April Azlan Hamzah

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2021, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 10-15
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2021.3801.1044

By applying dual anodization procedures of aluminum (Al) thin film over silicon substrate under controlled anodizing process conditions, a thin anodic alumina (AAO) pattern with hexagonal honeycomb-like arrangement nano-pores and highly-regular aligned arrays was created. Anodizing DC voltage was thought to have an effect on pore size dimensions. With anodizing DC voltage, the pore diameter (30 - 110nm) showed a linear change. The rate of vertical growth of the nanopores was found to be proportional to the anodizing voltage. To achieve open-through pore nanostructure and ensure homogeneous electrochemical deposition of various nanostructures onto AAO pattern, a bottommost barrier layer of the AAO pattern was detached during dropping the DC voltage in the final period of the anodization process, followed by a pore widening wet treatment for numerous minutes at ambient temperature atmosphere. The features of the AAO pattern were inspected by using the field emission scanning microscope (FESEM) linked with an electron dispersive x-ray spectrometer (EDX) for chemical elements investigation.

Treatment Outcomes and Survival of Patients with Gastric Cancer in Hamadan, Iran: A Retrospective Study

Asef Josheghanian; Ehsan Akbari-hamed; Elham Khanlarzadeh; Mohammad hadi Gholami; Safoora Nikzad

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2021, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 16-26
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2021.3704.1037

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of various factors and treatments protocols' outcomes on the survival of patients with gastric cancer (GC). In a retrospective cohort study Patients with a definite diagnosis of GC who had been hospitalized at the Mahdie Hospital of Hamadan, Iran, from 2005-2017 were investigated. GC-related survival for different factors, types, locations of the tumor, sites of metastasis, and used treatment methods investigated. Data analyze performed by SPSS software version 21. 95 patients, including 66 (71%) male, and 27 (29%) female, were identified. The mean age was 63.88±12.41 years. The largest proportion of tumors was located in the cardia (29.7%), body (18.9%), and antrum (18.9%) of the stomach. The most common site of metastasis was the liver (52.6%), and lung (26.3%). The average survival of patients was 40.64±4.58 months, and the one, two, three, four, and five years’ survival of investigated patients were 0.68, 0.49, 0.43, 0.39, and 0.34 years, respectively. The average survival of patients with and without metastasis were 16.35±3.27 and 46.97±5.30 months (P=0.004). The Pearson correlation coefficient between the survival and total dose of RT, total number of CT sessions, and dose of each RT session were -0.003 (P-value=0.98), 0.006 (P-value=0.97), and -0.108 (P-value=0.412), respectively. Results show that there were no statistically significant differences between the average survival of patients and used treatment method, grade, type of cancer, and CT medicine. But survival of patients with metastasis was significantly lower than patients without metastasis (P=0.029).

Homogeneity of Lithium Metasilicate-Copper Oxide Glass-Ceramics by Weibull Modulus

Duraid Mahdi; Shihab Zaidan; Muthafar Al-Hilli

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2021, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 27-36
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2021.3534.1027

The work idea is finding out how the homogeneity of dielectric strength property in lithium metasilicate glass-ceramic with addition weight percentage increasing of CuO. It prepared four specimens, one without CuO addition lithium metasilicate glass-ceramic LSGC and consists of Li2O-SiO2 binary system glass batch with weight percentages 45 wt% Li2O and 55 wt% SiO2. It added to the binary system CuO with different weight percentages to prepare the rest three specimens in front of the Li2O weight percentage decreasing as 1 wt% LC1S, 2 wt% LC2S, and 3 wt% LC3S. The glass batches for four specimens were mixed and used melting-quenching method at temperature of 1195OC for soaking time 2 hrs. It used platinum crucible (90 Pt-10 Rh) and immediately cooled in the cold water of temperature at 3OC. This process was repeated twice for all specimens and the produced frit was milled by agate mortar. Addition of P2O5 and TiO2 as nucleating agents with weight percentage 3 wt% P2O5 and 1 wt% TiO2 and prepared compact discs with dimensions 18 diameter × 2.58 thickness mm by the used biaxial hydraulic press with 5 ton for 30 s under pressure. The heat treatment was done for all glass batch compact discs of temperature at 950OC for 6 hrs as soaking time and breakdown voltage test was done executed 10 different spots in each specimen and Weibull modulus was used to know the homogeneity of dielectric strength property and coincided with Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopes (FE-SEM) images. It got a good match between Weibull modulus results and FESEM images which indicating that Weibull modulus is the active tool that can be used for knowing the homogeneity of any property. The high average dielectric strength is 9.116 kV/mm for LC1S while the lower average dielectric strength is 7.101 kV/mm for LSGC and this back to more homogeneity and fewer defects in LC1S than LSGC.

Study of Biological Activities of Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Prepared by Co-Precipitation Method

Rania Huseen; Ali Taha; Oday Abdulhusein

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2021, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 37-48
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2021.11635

Iron oxides are the most common types of substances available in nature in various forms such as oxides, hydroxides and oxide-hydroxides, which obtained from various aqueous reactions. In the present study, iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles (NPs) had been synthesized using co - precipitation method and determined some biological activities. Iron oxide NPs had been characterized by spectrophotometry, X- Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopic (FE-SEM). The XRD analysis confirmed the purity and crystalline nature of fabricated NPs. In contrast, four biological activities of iron oxide NPs were determined.  High removal of methylene blue pollutant dye (37.62 %) was observed when iron oxide NPs were used at 400 µg/ml within 48 hrs. Furthermore, iron oxide NPs revealed high inhibition zones of 27.5 and 30 mm, at 1000 µg/ml, toward Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli respectively. The hemolysis activity of fabricated NPs is increases whenever concentrations increased. The lower hemolysis percentage of iron oxide NPs was (69.76%) when the NPs concentration was 250 µg/ml. Finally, cytotoxic activity was estimated against MCF- 7 cell line and normal cell line WRL68 by MTT assay. Significant and decrease in viability of (MCF-7 to 65.1%) when 400 µg/ml of iron oxide NPs was examined, while WRL68 viability was (75.03%).

Structural, Optical and Morphological Properties Cadmium Sulfide Thin Films Prepared by Hydrothermal Method

Kahlaa H. Aboud; Natheer Jamal Imran; Selma M.H. Al-Jawad

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2021, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 49-57
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2021.3478.1021

In this research, pure and 4%, Mn-doped thin films of cadmium sulfide (CdS) were synthesized using a 2-hour hydrothermal process. The effect of adding the dopant concentration on thesamples' structural, morphological, and optical characteristics were investigated. The ultraviolet-visible-NIR spectrophotometer was used to investigate the optical properties. UV-Vis experiments lowered the optical bandgap with an add Mn percentage. Their optical bandgap was 2.38 eV for undoped thin films and 1.81 eV for 4% doped Mn-CdS thin films. UV-Vis spectroscopy data are in agreement with PL. FE-SEM imaging revealed morphological changes caused by the inclusion of Mn in CdS thin films. FE-SEM displays images of undopedCdS,which appear to be Nanoparticles. Morphology of the thin films has shown that the average grain size increases by the agglomeration of Nano-grains, which become clusters of particles after Mn+2incorporation. In addition, The XRD pattern revealed that prepared samples H (002)/C (111) as hexagonal and cube phases have a preferential orientation. The increase in the main diffraction peak (002) intensity with increasing Mn concentration revealed the substitution of Mn+2 with Cd+2 in the lattice. The crystallite size increased from10.74 to 11.67 nm with an Mn percentage.

Enhanced Production of Fibrinolytic Enzyme from Pseudomonas aeruginosa by Optimization Media Components

Bilal Jasim; Entesar Ali

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2021, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 58-65
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2021.11637

Fibrinolytic enzyme is factor that lysis fibrin clots. This fibrinolytic factor has prospective use to treat cardiovascular diseases, such as stroke and heart attack. Cardiovascular diseases attracted worldwide attention for their elevation morbidity and mortality. Expensive cost and fatally undesired side effects associated with the available fibrinolytic agents to treat these diseases stimulated the researchers to investigate potentially better agents for curative applications. In the current investigation, fibrinolytic enzyme production from Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from injuries of wounds and burns patients. Parameters for the promoted production of the enzyme under minimal production media were optimized. It comprised carbon source (glucose), Nitrogen source (Yeast extract), Fibrinogen concentration (0.5 %), inoculum size (1 %), temperature (37°C), and PH (7). Enhanced fibrinolytic enzyme activity (136.2 IU/ml) was obtained after optimization Medium Components compared with that obtained with the minimal medium (60.2 IU/ml) which is 2.2 times higher than the same under non optimized production conditions. Media optimization researches for enhancement of fibrinolytic enzyme production from Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Iraq has not been performed so far. This may be the first study to optimization media for the production of fibrinolytic enzyme from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The importance of this study lies in the enhancing the production of the fibrinolytic enzyme with high activity using these bacteria.

Investigation of Morphological, Optical, and Antibacterial Properties of Hybrid ZnO-MWCNT Prepared by Sol-gel

Zahraa Khedaer; Duha Ahmed; Selma Al-Jawad

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2021, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 66-77
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2021.11634

In this research, raw multiwalled carbon nanotubes (R-MWCNT) was successfully functionalized using sulfuric acid and nitric acid. Then a hybrid (ZnO-MWCNT) synthesized by the sol-gel method where diethylene glycol was used as a solvent and stabilizer that works to prevent the accumulation of nanoparticles and reduces the viscosity of the solution. A group of diagnostic techniques, including XRD, UV-Vis, EDX and microscopy has recognized the structural and optical properties of the prepared nanoparticles. High Resolution Electronic Scanner (FE-SEM) was also used in the investigation. FE-SEM images showed the formation of the hybrid (ZnO-MWCNT) by the growth of spherical clusters on the surface of the cross-linked tubes (MWCNT). In addition, FE-SEM images confirmed the success of a ZnO-MWCNT hybrid. The emergence of spherical shapes deposited on cylindrical tubes and associated with a wrinkled surface was recognized. In addition, the particle size ratio increased. The UV-Vis spectra revealed that all the composites had good absorbency with a shift towards short wavelengths. While it was observed from the analysis of X-ray diffraction (XRD) the formation of a hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure due to zinc oxide with a polycrystalline nature. The average crystal size calculated from the Debye-spark equation increased with the increase in the concentration of the streaked material. Antibacterial activity was studied for all prepared samples against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) at different μg/ml concentrations (500, 750, and 1000). It was observed that the highest inhibition Zone for functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (F-MWCNT) and ZnO-MWCNT hybrid was (17.3, 12.3mm), (22.5, 19mm) for Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively.