Online ISSN: 2788-6867

Main Subjects : Nanotechnology

Characterization and Aerodynamics of Synthesized Polymeric Nanofibers via Electrospinning Process to Capture PM10 and PM2.5 from Air

Barra L. Abbood; Khalid A. Sukkar; Jenan A. Al-Najar

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, In Press
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2021.4101.1070

Air quality is an important factor for human breathing requirements. The presence of the particulate matter which is a mixture of solid particles and liquid droplets presence in atmosphere such as PM10 and PM2.5 in the indoor air leads to fatal problems for human health.  In the present investigation, two types of nanofilters (polyacrylonitrile PAN, 15wt.% and polyvinyl alcohol PVA 12wt.%) were synthesized using the electrospinning method. The polymeric solutions were prepared under high mixing conditions. The structural and morphological specifications of produced nanofibers were characterized using many measuring devices.  Also, airflow characteristics across the prepared nanofilter were evaluated by designing and constructing an airflow apparatus. The apparatus consisted of two stainless steel sections and the middle zone was designed to fit the filter media. The characterization results indicated that the synthesized of PVA 12 wt.% nanofilter has uniform morphological distribution with fibers average diameter of 92 nm while the produced PAN with 15wt.% showed and an average fibers diameter of 556 nm. Moreover, the PVA nanofilter showed high-pressure values in comparison with the PAN filter. Interestingly, both filters provided high air permeability.  Furthermore, the produced PAN nanofilter showed a high ability to capture the PM10 and PM2.5 due to the significant properties and specifications of nanofibers. Additionally, the produced nanofilter can be applied in air filtration processes effectively with low manufacturing costs.

Study and Investigation of the Effects of the OTA Technique on the Physical Properties of the ZnO Thin Films Prepared by PLD

Duha S. Hassan; Mehdi Zayer

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, In Press
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2021.3805.1045

The polycrystalline thin films were deposited on glass substrate at room temperature by pulsed laser deposition PLD technique. The effects of annealing treatment by used the Oil Thermal Annealing (OTA) process on the structural, optical and electrical properties of ZnO thin film films were investigated. The film structure was investigated by X-ray diffraction to indicate that the heat treatment after the OTA process gives the optimized condition of crystalline. The transmission spectrum of the film was measured by UV-V is spectrophotometer, and the Urbach energy and forbidden band width were calculated. The surface topography of the film was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of the ZnO thin film at the OTA process shows the changes in the shape and size of the grains. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) effect of heat treatment was demonstrated by the change in the surface roughness of the ZnO thin film. The electrical properties of thin film were optioned by Hall Effect technique. That these improvements in the ZnO thin film physical properties were annealing temperatures by OTA at 150 °C, 200 °C, 250 °C and 300 °C.

The Effect of Current Density on the Properties of Porous Silicon Gas Sensor for Ethanol and Methanol Vapour Detection

Muna H. Kareem; Adi M.; Haitham T. Hussein

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, In Press
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2021.3834.1048

In this paper, Gas sensors for ethanol and methanol were created utilizing porous silicon (PSi).n-type silicon was employed for all PSi samples, photo-electrochemical etching technique (PECE) was used to prepare porous surface. The intensity of the three etchings current densities was 12, 24 and 30 mA / cm2, with 40% hydrofluoric acid concentration (HF) and a time of etching 10 minutes. Porous silicon (100) has been strictly studied by the structure and formation of surface bonding of the PSi layer; the structural properties, morphological characteristics, pore diameter, and roughness were described using X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All PSi samples were applied as a sensor for ethanol and methanol at room temperature. The results showed that the best sensitivity of PSi was to ethanol gas compared to methane under the same used conditions at etching current density 30mA/cm2, reaching about 1.809 at a concentration of 500 ppm. From these results, the PSi layers act as high-quality, low-cost gas sensors. It can be used as a replacement for expensive material that is used as gas sensors, which operate at low temperatures, including room temperature. The interest in this material is due to study the effect of extremely high surface to volume ratio (increasing surface area), and easy manufactured and compatibility with modern silicon microelectronics manufacturing technologies.

Cytotoxicity Effect and Antibacterial Activity of Al2O3 Nanoparticles Activity against Streptococcus Pyogenes and Proteus Vulgaris

Anwar Sabri Jawad; Qasim N. Thewaini; Sharafaldin Al-Musawi

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2021, Volume 1, Issue 3, Pages 42-50
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2021.3944.1061

Aluminum oxide, often known as Al2O3, is a chemical compound of aluminum and oxygen with the formula Al2O3. It's the most common of many aluminum oxides, known as aluminum (III) oxide. The study investigates the cytotoxicity and antibacterial effects of Aluminum oxide nanoparticles (Al2O3-NPs) in different cells and bacteria. Different characterization methods such as dynamic light scattering (DLS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) have been used to evaluate morphologies and physicochemical properties of Al2O3-NPs. MTT technique is used for determining NPs cytotoxicity. The size distribution of Al2O3-NPs was 68 ± 12 nm in diameter, while the zeta potential was (-36 ± 10 mV). There is no toxicity by using the MTT assay, as well as showed antibacterial activity was formed at 200 µg/mL, while the higher antibacterial activity was occurring at (18 ± 0.2) and (17 ± 0.1) for Proteus Vulgaris and Streptococcus pyogenes, respectively. The findings confirmed that the Al2O3-NPs have small dimensions, high stability, and increased antibacterial activity.

Physical Investigations of Titanium Dioxide Nanorods Film Prepared by Hydrothermal Technique

Reem A. Saleh; Odai N. Salman; Mohammed O. Dawood

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2021, Volume 1, Issue 3, Pages 32-41
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2021.3513.1024

In this work, well-oriented and homogeneous titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanorods (NRs) was synthesized by hydrothermal method. In this method, vertically aligned arrays of TiO2 were built  on the conductive Fluorine–Tin–Oxide (FTO) glass substrate. Nanoparticles (NRs) of TiO2 showed a tetragonal shape with a square top face, according to the image of the field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). The TiO2 NRs are polycrystalline, having two phases: rutile and anatase, according to X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The optical properties of a TiO2 nanorods arrays were examined, including transmittance, absorption coefficient, and energy bandgap. An optical energy band gap of 3.18 eV was obtained. According to the photoluminescence emission measurement, the energy bandgap was 3.3 eV. For further study of the optical properties of the TiO2 Nanorods films, reflectance spectrum was used as a function of wavelength to estimate the value of the energy bandgap and its value was 3.45 eV. By comparing the values ​​obtained from the three methods, it is found that they are closely alike, which confirms the formation of the TiO2 nanostructure.

Structural, Optical and Morphological Properties Cadmium Sulfide Thin Films Prepared by Hydrothermal Method

Kahlaa H. Aboud; Natheer Jamal Imran; Selma M.H. Al-Jawad

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2021, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 49-57
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2021.3478.1021

In this research, pure and 4%, Mn-doped thin films of cadmium sulfide (CdS) were synthesized using a 2-hour hydrothermal process. The effect of adding the dopant concentration on thesamples' structural, morphological, and optical characteristics were investigated. The ultraviolet-visible-NIR spectrophotometer was used to investigate the optical properties. UV-Vis experiments lowered the optical bandgap with an add Mn percentage. Their optical bandgap was 2.38 eV for undoped thin films and 1.81 eV for 4% doped Mn-CdS thin films. UV-Vis spectroscopy data are in agreement with PL. FE-SEM imaging revealed morphological changes caused by the inclusion of Mn in CdS thin films. FE-SEM displays images of undopedCdS,which appear to be Nanoparticles. Morphology of the thin films has shown that the average grain size increases by the agglomeration of Nano-grains, which become clusters of particles after Mn+2incorporation. In addition, The XRD pattern revealed that prepared samples H (002)/C (111) as hexagonal and cube phases have a preferential orientation. The increase in the main diffraction peak (002) intensity with increasing Mn concentration revealed the substitution of Mn+2 with Cd+2 in the lattice. The crystallite size increased from10.74 to 11.67 nm with an Mn percentage.

Influence of the Voltage on Pore Diameter and Growth Rate of Thin Anodic Aluminium Oxide (AAO) Pattern on Silicon Substrate

Khaled Chahrour; Poh Choon Ooi; April Azlan Hamzah

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2021, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 10-15
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2021.3801.1044

By applying dual anodization procedures of aluminum (Al) thin film over silicon substrate under controlled anodizing process conditions, a thin anodic alumina (AAO) pattern with hexagonal honeycomb-like arrangement nano-pores and highly-regular aligned arrays was created. Anodizing DC voltage was thought to have an effect on pore size dimensions. With anodizing DC voltage, the pore diameter (30 - 110nm) showed a linear change. The rate of vertical growth of the nanopores was found to be proportional to the anodizing voltage. To achieve open-through pore nanostructure and ensure homogeneous electrochemical deposition of various nanostructures onto AAO pattern, a bottommost barrier layer of the AAO pattern was detached during dropping the DC voltage in the final period of the anodization process, followed by a pore widening wet treatment for numerous minutes at ambient temperature atmosphere. The features of the AAO pattern were inspected by using the field emission scanning microscope (FESEM) linked with an electron dispersive x-ray spectrometer (EDX) for chemical elements investigation.

Study the Effect of Laser Wavelength on Polymeric Metallic Nanocarrier Synthesis for Curcumin Delivery in Prostate Cancer Therapy: In Vitro Study

Maha A Al-Kinani; Adawiya Haider; Sharafaldin Al-Musawi

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2021, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 43-50
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2021.11023

Drug delivery using nanocarriers is recommended to decrease the drug amount. To improve the different therapeutic characteristics of curcumin (CU) such as solubility, bioavailability, maintenance endorsement, and make it a promising, successful antitumor drug used for prostate cancer treatment. It was introduced to folate decorated chitosan (CS) coated [email protected] NPs ([email protected] NPs). [email protected] nanoparticle contains magnetic Fe NP’s core with a fine layer of Au NP’s synthesized using the method Pulsed, Laser, Ablation in Liquid (PLAL). These [email protected] NP’s characterized by UV-Visible Spectrophotometer, High-Resolution, Transmission Electron Microscopy, (HRTEM), and Field Emission Scanning, Electron, Microscopy (FESEM). The smallest nanosize and the best result was obtained at different laser wavelength (532, 1064) nm. The mean size gained of [email protected] NPs were (67.65, 77.88) nm. Obtained results exhibited that the laser wavelength plays a key role in the size, and dispersity of [email protected] NPs. CU loaded [email protected] NPs MTT assay on human prostate cancer cell line (PC3) proved that CU cytotoxicity can improve when they are loaded on ([email protected] NPs) when comparing it with free CU.