Online ISSN: 2788-6867

Main Subjects : Nanotechnology

Application of Electrosprayed Nanoparticles as Targeted Drug Delivery Systems: A Mini Review

Sanaz Khademolqorani; Seyedeh Nooshin Banitaba

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2022, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2021.4462.1111

Nanoparticles (NPs) are referred to as tiny materials in size ranging from 1 to 100 nm. Unique characteristics of the NPs, including small sizes and high surface area, appropriate reactivity, proper stability, great strength, and many more, have resulted in their wide use in numerous fields. Among different techniques reported for synthesizing the nanoparticles, electro-hydrodynamic atomization or electrospray has been identified as a well-practiced and high efficient technique for the formation of fine and homogenous NPs from a liquid under the influence of electrical forces. This process allows feasible encapsulation of different drugs, vitamins, and proteins applicable in the targeted drug delivery systems. Since the release rate of the loaded pharmaceutical materials could be easily tuned via varying the properties of core and shell components. Herein, we summarized the importance of the electrospray technique for the production of drug-loaded nanoparticles applicable in controlled drug delivery systems.

Effect of Nitrate via CVD Coating on Hydrogen Embrittlement in High Strength Steel Treated with Zinc PVD Coating

Ihsan Ali; Ameen D. Thamer; Faras Q. Mohammad

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2022, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 124-131
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2021.4323.1095

High strength low alloy steel (HSLAS) is quite sensitive to hydrogen embrittlement due to its different phases. This study investigated the hydrogen embrittlement (HE) behavior of uncoated, physically vapor deposition (PVD) coated, and chemically vapor deposition (CVD) coated HSLAS. The XRD indicates the formation of ZnO, Zn(N3)2, γN and C3N4 phases at the outer coating layer. The results show that combination of surface nitriding and zinc deposition are efficient method against hydrogen embrittlement. This could be attributed to the reduction of hydrogen that is generated by the reaction of surface Zn) N3)2 phase and the low rate of hydrogen transport through the γN phase. The coatings were tested by immersing the tensile samples in a diluted H2SO4 solution with water for 24 hours. Additionally, the result shows that combined coating resulting in higher tensile strength, yield stress, and tensile elongation compared to uncoated samples.  Hardness results indicate that the combined coatings (PVD + CVD) has the higher value of about 258 HV, followed by the uncoated sample of about 218 HV, while the PVD only coated sample have the lower hardness value of about 175 HV.

Improvement of Substrates Properties by Incorporating Titanium Nanoparticles Deposited by DC Diode Sputtering Approach

Iman H. Hadi; Muslim F. Jawad; Khaleel I. Hassoon

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2022, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 103-111
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2021.4069.1075

In this work, synthesis of titanium thin films on two different substrates (glass and n-type Si), with thicknesses of 90 and 145 nm at two different times (5 and 10 min) respectively, has been obtained. The thin films have been successfully deposited on glass and silicon substrates using DC diode sputtering technique. The optical properties of the prepared thin films have been checked out using the optical reflectance spectrum. A significant reduction in surface reflectivity was observed at (10 min) sputtering time. The structural properties of the prepared thin films were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). XRD results confirmed that titanium thin films had a hexagonal structure with preferred orientation on (002). The images of FESEM showed that all the samples had a uniform distribution of granular surface morphology. The grain sizes of the Ti nanostructure were estimated using Scherrers’ analysis. The thickness of Ti thin film increased as the sputtering time increased for both glass and Si n-type substrates. The repeated experiments revealed that most uniform Ti thin film is on Si substrate (n-type) with particle size 10 nm at deposition time 5 min.

A Review of Nano-catalyst Applications in Kerosene Desulfurization Techniques

Sahar M. Abd Zaid; Adnan A. AbdulRazak; Mohammad F. Abid

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2022, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 86-102
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2022.4302.1094

The production of clean liquid fuels is critical to maintaining a healthy life and environment around the world. To meet the new sulfur standard requirements, sulfur compounds must be effectively and completely removed from fuel oil. Therefore, researchers' attention turned to research into different techniques to remove sulfur from kerosene. This review focused on discussing a variety of catalysis approaches and emerging technologies for ultra-deep desulfurization of refinery streams for ultralow sulfur, such as hydrodesulfurization, catalytic-oxidative desulfurization, and adsorption desulfurization to form clean liquid fuels. This review discusses the most important industrial parameters that influence sulfur removal processes and has focused primarily on the main role of the catalyst and its type in impacting the efficiency of the process. Also, it will discuss the concepts of nano-catalysts, their preparation methods, and the most common forms, were described such as graphene, carbon nano-tubes (CNTs), metal-organic frames (MOVs), and zeolites. A comparison between the nano-catalyst and the conventional catalyst was also discussed to show the great effect of the nano-catalyst in improving the removal processes, which will lead to the development of innovative, efficient desulfurization methods that produce zero-sulfur fuels. In addition, understanding the most important challenges in nano-catalysts.

Preparation and Characterization of Porous Silicon for Photodetector Applications

Shahad S. Khudiar; Uday M. Nayef; Falah A. Mutlak

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2022, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 64-69
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2021.3646.1032

Photoelectrochemical etching (PECE) was used to prepare porous silicon (PS) layers of polished surfaces of (100) n-type silicon wafers with a resistance of 0.1-100 μm and thickness of 600 ± 25 μm. The directed slices are to be catalyzed at different etching times (5, 15, 25 min) with a constant Hydrofluoric acid of 20% and with a fixed current density of 20 mA/cm². The porous silicon morphology was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Samples were formed by different engraving times. It revealed that the silicon surface has a layer of sponge-like structure, with the average pore diameter (740±1 nm, 550±2 nm,460±3 nm) of the porous silicon increasing as the etching time increased. PS Al PS /Si /Al photodetectors were found to work as a photodetector over a wide wavelength responsivity.

Nanoplasmonic Sensing Using Gold Nanostructures

Abbas A. Thajeel; Mohammed A. Ibrahem; Duha S. Ahmed

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2022, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 8-15
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2021.4282.1087

Nanoplasmonic sensing, based on the plasmonic resonance absorption of thin, irregularly-shaped Au nanostructures film, with a starting thickness of about 15 nm (±3 nm) sputtered on a quartz substrate, is used to monitor the CeO2 NPs (with an average diameter of 50 nm) film refractive index variations using different film thicknesses (90 nm, 146 nm, 172 nm, and 196 nm). Increasing the film thickness of solution-processed CeO2 NPs film, with layer-by-layer deposition on top of Au nanostructures, shows a significant redshift in the plasmonic resonance absorption of the plasmonic metal, from 580 nm to 611 nm. Such an increase is related to the change in the building microstructure of the semiconductor’s film which is reflected in changing its refractive index. Plasmonic surface refractive index sensitivity of 437.5 nm/RIU with FOM of 4.2 has been recorded. Such a sensing technique offers a large potential for developing cost-effective plasmonic nanosensing devices for clinical applications. This sensor structure is versatile and can be utilized to sense and monitor a large variety of materials and chemicals.

Polysulfone/TiO2 Thin Film Nanocomposite for Commercial Ultrafiltration Membranes

Saja H. Salim; Riyad H. Al-Anbari; Adawiya Haider

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2022, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 80-89
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2022.4528.1121

Due to low water fluxes, commercial ultrafiltration (UF) membranes used in water treatment need to be improved. High-quality UF membranes were fabricated from polysulfone (PSF)/titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanocomposite fibers as substrates using the spray pyrolysis method. The influence of nano-TiO2 on the UF nanocomposite membrane was studied. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), contact angle, and porosity were evaluated to characterize the mechanical characteristics of the membranes. The results show that adding TiO2 to the substrates increased the hydrophilicity and porosity of the substrates. The pure water flux of the Thin Film Nanocomposite (TFN) membrane manufactured utilizing a PSF substrate coated with 0.1 wt% TiO2 nanoparticles (denoted as Pc 0.1) improved at a rate of 35.28 l/m2.h, and for a PSF substrate coated with 0.2 wt% TiO2 nanoparticles (denoted as Pc 0.2) improved at a rate of 44 l/m2.h. Additionally, increasing TiO­2 nanoparticle loading to 0.1 and 0.2 wt. percent resulted in higher water flow over 20 l/m2.h PSF commercial membrane. The results of the UF performance show that Pc 0.2 membrane offered the most promising results, with a high-water flux than commercial membranes without nano-TiO2 (Pc).

Study of the Effect of Laser Energy on the Structural and Optical Properties of TiO2 NPs Prepared by PLAL Technique

Israa F. Hasan; Khawla S. Khashan; Aseel A. Hadi

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2022, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 11-19
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2021.3600.1031

Titanium dioxide nanoparticles were produced in this work by laser ablation of a high purity titanium objective immersed in distilled water. Optical and structural properties of the obtained TiO2 NPs using a Q-switched Nd: YAG laser of 1064nm wavelength with different laser energy (80, 100, 120, 140, and 160) mJ at 100 pulses was studied. The produced TiO2 NPs were characterized employing UV-VIS Spectrophotometer, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The obtained TiO2NPs showed a decrease in transmittance in the region of the UV spectrum and an increase in the visible spectrum region. The estimated optical band gap of the TiO2NPs was 3.89eV, 3.8eV, and 3.70eV at 80, 120 and 160mJ laser energy, respectively. The as-produced TiO2NPs appear to be a Brookite crystalline phase with the preferential orientation along (200) direction. The scanning electron microscopy assays showed that the TiO2 NPs have a cauliflower shape. Results show that with increasing the energy of laser pulse, the size of nanoparticles was increased noticeably. Where the particle size and its morphology are affected by laser energy.

Study and Investigation of the Effects of the OTA Technique on the Physical Properties of the ZnO Thin Films Prepared by PLD

Duha S. Hassan; Mehdi Zayer

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2021, Volume 1, Issue 4, Pages 32-43
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2021.3805.1045

The polycrystalline thin films were deposited on glass substrate at room temperature by pulsed laser deposition PLD technique. The effects of annealing treatment by used the Oil Thermal Annealing (OTA) process on the structural, optical and electrical properties of ZnO thin film films were investigated. The film structure was investigated by X-ray diffraction to indicate that the heat treatment after the OTA process gives the optimized condition of crystalline. The transmission spectrum of the film was measured by UV-V is spectrophotometer, and the Urbach energy and forbidden band width were calculated. The surface topography of the film was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of the ZnO thin film at the OTA process shows the changes in the shape and size of the grains. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) effect of heat treatment was demonstrated by the change in the surface roughness of the ZnO thin film. The electrical properties of thin film were optioned by Hall Effect technique. That these improvements in the ZnO thin film physical properties were annealing temperatures by OTA at 150 °C, 200 °C, 250 °C and 300 °C.

Characterization and Aerodynamics of Synthesized Polymeric Nanofibers via Electrospinning Process to Capture PM10 and PM2.5 from Air

Barra L. Abbood; Khalid A. Sukkar; Jenan A. Al-Najar

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2021, Volume 1, Issue 4, Pages 91-104
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2021.4101.1070

Air quality is an important factor for human breathing requirements. The presence of the particulate matter which is a mixture of solid particles and liquid droplets presence in atmosphere such as PM10 and PM2.5 in the indoor air leads to fatal problems for human health.  In the present investigation, two types of nanofilters (polyacrylonitrile PAN, 15wt.% and polyvinyl alcohol PVA 12wt.%) were synthesized using the electrospinning method. The polymeric solutions were prepared under high mixing conditions. The structural and morphological specifications of produced nanofibers were characterized using many measuring devices.  Also, airflow characteristics across the prepared nanofilter were evaluated by designing and constructing an airflow apparatus. The apparatus consisted of two stainless steel sections and the middle zone was designed to fit the filter media. The characterization results indicated that the synthesized of PVA 12 wt.% nanofilter has uniform morphological distribution with fibers average diameter of 92 nm while the produced PAN with 15wt.% showed and an average fibers diameter of 556 nm. Moreover, the PVA nanofilter showed high-pressure values in comparison with the PAN filter. Interestingly, both filters provided high air permeability.  Furthermore, the produced PAN nanofilter showed a high ability to capture the PM10 and PM2.5 due to the significant properties and specifications of nanofibers. Additionally, the produced nanofilter can be applied in air filtration processes effectively with low manufacturing costs.

The Effect of Current Density on the Properties of Porous Silicon Gas Sensor for Ethanol and Methanol Vapour Detection

Muna H. Kareem; Adi M.; Haitham T. Hussein

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2021, Volume 1, Issue 4, Pages 52-60
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2021.3834.1048

In this paper, Gas sensors for ethanol and methanol were created utilizing porous silicon (PSi).n-type silicon was employed for all PSi samples, photo-electrochemical etching technique (PECE) was used to prepare porous surface. The intensity of the three etchings current densities was 12, 24 and 30 mA / cm2, with 40% hydrofluoric acid concentration (HF) and a time of etching 10 minutes. Porous silicon (100) has been strictly studied by the structure and formation of surface bonding of the PSi layer; the structural properties, morphological characteristics, pore diameter, and roughness were described using X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All PSi samples were applied as a sensor for ethanol and methanol at room temperature. The results showed that the best sensitivity of PSi was to ethanol gas compared to methane under the same used conditions at etching current density 30mA/cm2, reaching about 1.809 at a concentration of 500 ppm. From these results, the PSi layers act as high-quality, low-cost gas sensors. It can be used as a replacement for expensive material that is used as gas sensors, which operate at low temperatures, including room temperature. The interest in this material is due to study the effect of extremely high surface to volume ratio (increasing surface area), and easy manufactured and compatibility with modern silicon microelectronics manufacturing technologies.

Cytotoxicity Effect and Antibacterial Activity of Al2O3 Nanoparticles Activity against Streptococcus Pyogenes and Proteus Vulgaris

Anwar Sabri Jawad; Qasim N. Thewaini; Sharafaldin Al-Musawi

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2021, Volume 1, Issue 3, Pages 42-50
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2021.3944.1061

Aluminum oxide, often known as Al2O3, is a chemical compound of aluminum and oxygen with the formula Al2O3. It's the most common of many aluminum oxides, known as aluminum (III) oxide. The study investigates the cytotoxicity and antibacterial effects of Aluminum oxide nanoparticles (Al2O3-NPs) in different cells and bacteria. Different characterization methods such as dynamic light scattering (DLS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) have been used to evaluate morphologies and physicochemical properties of Al2O3-NPs. MTT technique is used for determining NPs cytotoxicity. The size distribution of Al2O3-NPs was 68 ± 12 nm in diameter, while the zeta potential was (-36 ± 10 mV). There is no toxicity by using the MTT assay, as well as showed antibacterial activity was formed at 200 µg/mL, while the higher antibacterial activity was occurring at (18 ± 0.2) and (17 ± 0.1) for Proteus Vulgaris and Streptococcus pyogenes, respectively. The findings confirmed that the Al2O3-NPs have small dimensions, high stability, and increased antibacterial activity.

Physical Investigations of Titanium Dioxide Nanorods Film Prepared by Hydrothermal Technique

Reem A. Saleh; Odai N. Salman; Mohammed O. Dawood

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2021, Volume 1, Issue 3, Pages 32-41
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2021.3513.1024

In this work, well-oriented and homogeneous titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanorods (NRs) was synthesized by hydrothermal method. In this method, vertically aligned arrays of TiO2 were built  on the conductive Fluorine–Tin–Oxide (FTO) glass substrate. Nanoparticles (NRs) of TiO2 showed a tetragonal shape with a square top face, according to the image of the field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). The TiO2 NRs are polycrystalline, having two phases: rutile and anatase, according to X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The optical properties of a TiO2 nanorods arrays were examined, including transmittance, absorption coefficient, and energy bandgap. An optical energy band gap of 3.18 eV was obtained. According to the photoluminescence emission measurement, the energy bandgap was 3.3 eV. For further study of the optical properties of the TiO2 Nanorods films, reflectance spectrum was used as a function of wavelength to estimate the value of the energy bandgap and its value was 3.45 eV. By comparing the values ​​obtained from the three methods, it is found that they are closely alike, which confirms the formation of the TiO2 nanostructure.

Influence of the Voltage on Pore Diameter and Growth Rate of Thin Anodic Aluminium Oxide (AAO) Pattern on Silicon Substrate

Khaled Chahrour; Poh Choon Ooi; April Azlan Hamzah

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2021, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 10-15
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2021.3801.1044

By applying dual anodization procedures of aluminum (Al) thin film over silicon substrate under controlled anodizing process conditions, a thin anodic alumina (AAO) pattern with hexagonal honeycomb-like arrangement nano-pores and highly-regular aligned arrays was created. Anodizing DC voltage was thought to have an effect on pore size dimensions. With anodizing DC voltage, the pore diameter (30 - 110nm) showed a linear change. The rate of vertical growth of the nanopores was found to be proportional to the anodizing voltage. To achieve open-through pore nanostructure and ensure homogeneous electrochemical deposition of various nanostructures onto AAO pattern, a bottommost barrier layer of the AAO pattern was detached during dropping the DC voltage in the final period of the anodization process, followed by a pore widening wet treatment for numerous minutes at ambient temperature atmosphere. The features of the AAO pattern were inspected by using the field emission scanning microscope (FESEM) linked with an electron dispersive x-ray spectrometer (EDX) for chemical elements investigation.

Structural, Optical and Morphological Properties Cadmium Sulfide Thin Films Prepared by Hydrothermal Method

Kahlaa H. Aboud; Natheer Jamal Imran; Selma M.H. Al-Jawad

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2021, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 49-57
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2021.3478.1021

In this research, pure and 4%, Mn-doped thin films of cadmium sulfide (CdS) were synthesized using a 2-hour hydrothermal process. The effect of adding the dopant concentration on thesamples' structural, morphological, and optical characteristics were investigated. The ultraviolet-visible-NIR spectrophotometer was used to investigate the optical properties. UV-Vis experiments lowered the optical bandgap with an add Mn percentage. Their optical bandgap was 2.38 eV for undoped thin films and 1.81 eV for 4% doped Mn-CdS thin films. UV-Vis spectroscopy data are in agreement with PL. FE-SEM imaging revealed morphological changes caused by the inclusion of Mn in CdS thin films. FE-SEM displays images of undopedCdS,which appear to be Nanoparticles. Morphology of the thin films has shown that the average grain size increases by the agglomeration of Nano-grains, which become clusters of particles after Mn+2incorporation. In addition, The XRD pattern revealed that prepared samples H (002)/C (111) as hexagonal and cube phases have a preferential orientation. The increase in the main diffraction peak (002) intensity with increasing Mn concentration revealed the substitution of Mn+2 with Cd+2 in the lattice. The crystallite size increased from10.74 to 11.67 nm with an Mn percentage.

Study the Effect of Laser Wavelength on Polymeric Metallic Nanocarrier Synthesis for Curcumin Delivery in Prostate Cancer Therapy: In Vitro Study

Maha A Al-Kinani; Adawiya Haider; Sharafaldin Al-Musawi

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2021, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 43-50
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2021.11023

Drug delivery using nanocarriers is recommended to decrease the drug amount. To improve the different therapeutic characteristics of curcumin (CU) such as solubility, bioavailability, maintenance endorsement, and make it a promising, successful antitumor drug used for prostate cancer treatment. It was introduced to folate decorated chitosan (CS) coated Fe@Au NPs (FA-CU-CS-Fe@Au NPs). Fe@Au nanoparticle contains magnetic Fe NP’s core with a fine layer of Au NP’s synthesized using the method Pulsed, Laser, Ablation in Liquid (PLAL). These Fe@Au NP’s characterized by UV-Visible Spectrophotometer, High-Resolution, Transmission Electron Microscopy, (HRTEM), and Field Emission Scanning, Electron, Microscopy (FESEM). The smallest nanosize and the best result was obtained at different laser wavelength (532, 1064) nm. The mean size gained of Fe@Au NPs were (67.65, 77.88) nm. Obtained results exhibited that the laser wavelength plays a key role in the size, and dispersity of Fe@Au NPs. CU loaded FA-CS-Fe@Au NPs MTT assay on human prostate cancer cell line (PC3) proved that CU cytotoxicity can improve when they are loaded on (FA-CS-Fe@Au NPs) when comparing it with free CU.