Online ISSN: 2788-6867

Volume 2, Issue 2

Volume 2, Issue 2, Spring 2022, Page 1-141

Review Article

Application of Electrosprayed Nanoparticles as Targeted Drug Delivery Systems: A Mini Review

Sanaz Khademolqorani; Seyedeh Nooshin Banitaba

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2022, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2021.4462.1111

Nanoparticles (NPs) are referred to as tiny materials in size ranging from 1 to 100 nm. Unique characteristics of the NPs, including small sizes and high surface area, appropriate reactivity, proper stability, great strength, and many more, have resulted in their wide use in numerous fields. Among different techniques reported for synthesizing the nanoparticles, electro-hydrodynamic atomization or electrospray has been identified as a well-practiced and high efficient technique for the formation of fine and homogenous NPs from a liquid under the influence of electrical forces. This process allows feasible encapsulation of different drugs, vitamins, and proteins applicable in the targeted drug delivery systems. Since the release rate of the loaded pharmaceutical materials could be easily tuned via varying the properties of core and shell components. Herein, we summarized the importance of the electrospray technique for the production of drug-loaded nanoparticles applicable in controlled drug delivery systems.

Regular Article

Nanoplasmonic Sensing Using Gold Nanostructures

Abbas A. Thajeel; Mohammed A. Ibrahem; Duha S. Ahmed

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2022, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 8-15
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2021.4282.1087

Nanoplasmonic sensing, based on the plasmonic resonance absorption of thin, irregularly-shaped Au nanostructures film, with a starting thickness of about 15 nm (±3 nm) sputtered on a quartz substrate, is used to monitor the CeO2 NPs (with an average diameter of 50 nm) film refractive index variations using different film thicknesses (90 nm, 146 nm, 172 nm, and 196 nm). Increasing the film thickness of solution-processed CeO2 NPs film, with layer-by-layer deposition on top of Au nanostructures, shows a significant redshift in the plasmonic resonance absorption of the plasmonic metal, from 580 nm to 611 nm. Such an increase is related to the change in the building microstructure of the semiconductor’s film which is reflected in changing its refractive index. Plasmonic surface refractive index sensitivity of 437.5 nm/RIU with FOM of 4.2 has been recorded. Such a sensing technique offers a large potential for developing cost-effective plasmonic nanosensing devices for clinical applications. This sensor structure is versatile and can be utilized to sense and monitor a large variety of materials and chemicals.

Study the Effect of Cinnamon and Tea Tree Oils on Biofilm Formation of Klebsiella Pneumoniae

Halah F. Rafeeq; Zahraa A. Sharba

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2022, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 16-26
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2022.4246.1082

Klebsiella pneumoniae is a noteworthy human pathogen. As a virulence factor, these bacteria may create a thick coating of extracellular biofilm. This aids the organism's adhesion to biotic as well as abiotic surfaces, preventing antimicrobial agents from doing their job. Infections caused by bacterial biofilms have become more difficult to treat as a result. Therefore, the present study has been designed to investigate the effects of essential oils, individually or in combination, on the biofilms of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates. In this research, the quantification of biofilm composition for 50 isolates from urine samples indicates the following statistics: [n = 24 (48%)] isolates form a strong biofilm, [n = 12 (24%)] a moderate biofilm, [n = 10 (20%)] a weak biofilm, and [n = 4 (8%] a non-biofilm. The Minimum Inhibitor Concentration (MIC) and MBC values for essential oils were determined. The results showed that the MIC for tea tree oil was 0.25% and MBC 0.5%. While the MIC for cinnamon oil was 0.125%, and MBC was 0.25%. Afterward, the anti-biofilm effectiveness of essential oils was evaluated. The results showed that both oils had good efficacy against strong biofilm for Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates. But in a comparison between them, cinnamon oil showed better results. Due to the efficacy of these two oils, the combined impact of the two oils was discovered in this study. And the results revealed that there was an antagonistic effect. These findings recommend additional essential oils be tested to see how they affect biofilms of Klebsiella pneumoniae or other bacteria.

DNA Analysis of qacE Gene in Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Isolated from Iraqi Patient

Rana M. Abdullah; Shahla N. Al-Azzawi

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2022, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 27-37
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2022.4168.1077

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause different infections such as nosocomial bacterial infection, Urinary tract infection, Meningitis, Eye infection, Otitis Media, Respiratory infections, and Pneumonia, especially in people with Cystic fibrosis, Bone and joints infection, gastrointestinal infection, Skin infection and soft tissue inflammation.  Resistance of P. aeruginosa to antibiotics and disinfectants is a major problem all over the world due to the random and unrestricted use of antibiotics. This resistance is also likely to occur due to several reasons, including the production of beta-lactamase enzymes and the lack of permeability of their cell wall, possibility of it containing resistance genes and the occurrence of genetic mutations leading to the development of resistance to antiseptics and causing failure in treating infections that caused by P. aeruginosa. This study aims to detect and sequence analysis of qacE gene in P. aeruginosa that responds to the resistance of Quaternary ammonium compounds and detect the mutations in this sequence and detection protein synthesis in this gene.  A hundred swabs were collected from patients with burns and wounds infection from many Hospital in Baghdad including Al- Kindi Teaching Hospital, Al-Yarmouk Teaching Hospital, Baghdad Teaching Hospital, National Centre for Educational Laboratories, Al-Shahid Ghazi Hariri Specialist Specialized Burns Centre (Medical City), and Al-Zaafarania General Hospital during the period October 2017 for the end of December 2017.The current study detected 69 isolates of P. aeruginosa from wound 68.6% (24/35) and burn samples 69.2% (45/65). The study was investigated QacE gene in 97.1% that responses of P. aeruginosa resistance to Quaternary ammonium compounds. The sequencing analysis for QacE genes were determined and the results appeared multiple mutations including Missense mutations, insertion mutations and several silent mutations, some mutations effected in the translation of protein while others not affected. This study also included the analysis of phylogenetic tree of QacE gene and the results showed that the tree consisted of only one species which is P. aeruginosa, and the isolates in this study did not deviate of this bacteria even if their mutations were more than 22.

Preparation and Characterization of PANI/PVA Blends as Electrolyte Materials

Doaa Akram; Nahida Hameed

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2022, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 38-46
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2022.4124.1073

This work presents a detailed study on the preparation and performance of polyaniline (PANI)/Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) blend. The blends are prepared by the casting method at different weight ratios (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 wt%). The structural morphology was characterized using scanning electron microscope SEM. The morphological analysis showed a uniform blend of PANI with PVA matrix. PVA exhibits lamellae structure of different shapes and dimensions. For 1% PANI, the results showed homogeneous blending, which decreases with an increase of the PANI ratio. Phase separation and semispherical region formation in the PVA matrix were seen. It was found that incompatibilities increase with increasing the PANI ratio. Also, the results proved in the blends scanning electron microscope anilinium cation – radical surfaces for an aggregate of different dimension and spherical shapes, which induced by surface tension. The electrical conductivity study of PANI/PVA blends and PVA reveals that PANI/PVA gives the conductivity of 10−4(cm.Ω)-1, while PVA presented the lowest conductivity with the value of 10−12 (cm.Ω)-1. The results also showed an increase in ionic conductivity with temperature and PANI weight ratio. The increase in electrical conduction with increasing temperatures is due to the negative thermal coefficient, this result is attributed to the polymer chains that act as traps for charge carriers, and when the temperature rises, the transfer mechanism will be reigned by the hopping process.

Calculating Modern Roman Domination of Fan Graph and Double Fan Graph

Saba Salah; Ahmed A. Omran; Manal N. Al-Harere

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2022, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 47-54
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2021.3906.1060

This paper is concerned with the concept of modern Roman domination in graphs. A Modern Roman dominating function on a graph is labeling such that every vertex with label 0 is adjacent to two vertices; one of them of label 2 and the other of label 3 and every vertex with label 1 is adjacent to a vertex with label 2 or label 3. The weight of a Roman dominating function is the value . The minimum weight of all possible Roman dominating functions is called the "Roman Domination Number" of a graph. This dominance can be used in many aspects of life, for example in computer networks, transmission lines, and many others. In this paper, the modern Roman domination of the fan graph and the double fan graph with their complement are determined. Also, it has been determined the the number of modern Roman dominations of  the corona of two specific graphs like the corone of two fan graph, two double fan graph ,fan graph and double fan graph and the oppisit of them.

Review Article

Synthesis, Characterization and Corrosion Inhibition of Novel Pyridine on Mild Steel in Hydrochloric Acid Environment

Bassma A. Hadi; Hiba H. Ibraheem

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2022, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 55-63
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2021.3862.1050

Corrosion inhibitions in corrosive solutions of hydrochloric acid for mild steel by chemical compound 3-acetyl-4-(4-bromophenyl)-6-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl pyridine-2(1H)-one (ABCP), was conducted and the chemical structure was elucidated The Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (H-NMR) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic techniques. The compound ABCP  had been investigated at 25 ˚C via weight loss technique. The outcomes show that the ABCP displays great performances as an inhibitor for mild steel in 0.5 M hydrochloric acid. Inhibition efficiency increments with expanding of concentration and become 98.4% at the highest studied concentration. The studies have demonstrated a reverse association between corrosion rate (CR) and inhibition efficiency (IE percent), as IE increases while CR decreases with an increased concentration. In the presence of ABCP, inhibitory efficiency was up to 98.4% at 25°C in presence of ABCP (0.5 mM). IE drops notably at 65°C with an increased temperature. By means of FT -IR and NMR spectroscopy approaches and physical properties through melting point and Thin Layer Chromatography  (TLC), the chemical structure of the tested inhibitor has been clarified.

Regular Article

Preparation and Characterization of Porous Silicon for Photodetector Applications

Shahad S. Khudiar; Uday M. Nayef; Falah A. Mutlak

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2022, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 64-69
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2021.3646.1032

Photoelectrochemical etching (PECE) was used to prepare porous silicon (PS) layers of polished surfaces of (100) n-type silicon wafers with a resistance of 0.1-100 μm and thickness of 600 ± 25 μm. The directed slices are to be catalyzed at different etching times (5, 15, 25 min) with a constant Hydrofluoric acid of 20% and with a fixed current density of 20 mA/cm². The porous silicon morphology was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Samples were formed by different engraving times. It revealed that the silicon surface has a layer of sponge-like structure, with the average pore diameter (740±1 nm, 550±2 nm,460±3 nm) of the porous silicon increasing as the etching time increased. PS Al PS /Si /Al photodetectors were found to work as a photodetector over a wide wavelength responsivity.

A Physico-chemical Contribution to the Conventional Technique of Preparation Graphene Oxide

Zainab B. Abd; Nasser A. Habib; Abbas khammas

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2022, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 70-78
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2021.4296.1090

The modified Graphene Oxide (GO) synthesis methods used over the past sixty years is contributed mainly to improving its characteristics and increasing its advanced applications. Therefore, in this work, modifying Hummer’s Method via oxidizing graphite flakes using one type of acid (H2SO4) was performed without any chemical agents. Also, ultra-sonication and filtration were implemented with optimal parameters (50 kHz frequency during 120 minutes at room temperature 30 oC) to prepare GO nanosheets. These procedures improved GO characteristics via analyzing; Particle size, X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD), Ultra-violet visible (UV-vis) absorption, and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The obtained results showed that the characteristics of GO nano-sheets had met the preparation requirements, such as reducing the average diameter of GO nano‑sheets from 313 nm to 94 nm. Moreover, characterizing the diffraction angle of GO at 9.86o and the optimal absorption by UV-vis achieved at 230 nm. The synthesis and exfoliation of GO nano-sheets were carried out with fewer impacts of toxicity using distilled water. Finally, this GO synthesis in the lab might be used to make a variety of nanocomposites.

Computational Analysis of Interleukin 17A Activity in Breast Cancer Patients Using Bioinformatics Methods

Abdalrahman S. Mohammed‬; Abbas A. Al-Janabi

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2022, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 79-85
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2021.3878.1052

In the current study, bioinformatics approach has been utilized to discover the sequences and structures analysis of IL-17A of breast cancer and compares with normal sequence from NCBI. The current study was aimed to discuss the possibility of using IL-17A as a marker for patients with breast cancer. Also, the effect of mutation on the physicochemical properties and structure of IL-17A. Sixty blood samples were examined from patients with breast cancer (aged between 20 and 75 years old). In patients with breast cancer, there were missense mutations and deletion mutations detected by BLAST. Furthermore, the current study determined the physicochemical properties of IL-17A, such as their hydrophilic nature; alpha–helical structure, and 3D structure. The results of this study show that IL-17A consider as a marker for the patient with breast cancer. Also, the mutations on IL-17A gene affected the structure and physicochemical properties of the Interleukin-17A protein complex.

Review Article

A Review of Nano-catalyst Applications in Kerosene Desulfurization Techniques

Sahar M. Abd Zaid; Adnan A. AbdulRazak; Mohammad F. Abid

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2022, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 86-102
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2022.4302.1094

The production of clean liquid fuels is critical to maintaining a healthy life and environment around the world. To meet the new sulfur standard requirements, sulfur compounds must be effectively and completely removed from fuel oil. Therefore, researchers' attention turned to research into different techniques to remove sulfur from kerosene. This review focused on discussing a variety of catalysis approaches and emerging technologies for ultra-deep desulfurization of refinery streams for ultralow sulfur, such as hydrodesulfurization, catalytic-oxidative desulfurization, and adsorption desulfurization to form clean liquid fuels. This review discusses the most important industrial parameters that influence sulfur removal processes and has focused primarily on the main role of the catalyst and its type in impacting the efficiency of the process. Also, it will discuss the concepts of nano-catalysts, their preparation methods, and the most common forms, were described such as graphene, carbon nano-tubes (CNTs), metal-organic frames (MOVs), and zeolites. A comparison between the nano-catalyst and the conventional catalyst was also discussed to show the great effect of the nano-catalyst in improving the removal processes, which will lead to the development of innovative, efficient desulfurization methods that produce zero-sulfur fuels. In addition, understanding the most important challenges in nano-catalysts.

Regular Article

Improvement of Substrates Properties by Incorporating Titanium Nanoparticles Deposited by DC Diode Sputtering Approach

Iman H. Hadi; Muslim F. Jawad; Khaleel I. Hassoon

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2022, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 103-111
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2021.4069.1075

In this work, synthesis of titanium thin films on two different substrates (glass and n-type Si), with thicknesses of 90 and 145 nm at two different times (5 and 10 min) respectively, has been obtained. The thin films have been successfully deposited on glass and silicon substrates using DC diode sputtering technique. The optical properties of the prepared thin films have been checked out using the optical reflectance spectrum. A significant reduction in surface reflectivity was observed at (10 min) sputtering time. The structural properties of the prepared thin films were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). XRD results confirmed that titanium thin films had a hexagonal structure with preferred orientation on (002). The images of FESEM showed that all the samples had a uniform distribution of granular surface morphology. The grain sizes of the Ti nanostructure were estimated using Scherrers’ analysis. The thickness of Ti thin film increased as the sputtering time increased for both glass and Si n-type substrates. The repeated experiments revealed that most uniform Ti thin film is on Si substrate (n-type) with particle size 10 nm at deposition time 5 min.

Determination of Risk Factors and Some Biomarkers Parameters during Infected Iraqis with Covid-19

Rafah A. Salih; Ali A. Taha; Nadira S. Mohamed

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2022, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 112-123
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2021.4112.1071

Covid-19 is a global challenge that drives health care to its limits. Biological parameters associated with increased risk of severe or fatal disease courses were identified, including conditions connected with a poor state of health, organ damage, and coagulation dysfunction. In a recent study, risk factors like age, sex, blood group (ABO), smoking, and several biomarkers like white blood cells, lymphocytes, C-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin, D-dimer, and potassium level were considered. One hundred nasopharyngeal swabs and blood samples were collected from Iraqi patients and classified according to the severity of the disease into five groups: Asymptomatic, Mild, Moderate, Severe, and Deceased, according to the recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO). The current study was based on the risk factors and their effect on disease severity (age, sex, blood type, and smoking). As a result, there was a substantial positive linear link (R2=0.91) between getting older and increasing disease severity. Study results were showed a little statistically significant difference in the number of males and females infected with SARS-CoV-2. Interestingly, males were shown to be more susceptible to infection than females. Also, because type (O) blood is more extensively distributed in the Middle East population than the other blood types, those with type (O) blood are more susceptible to infection. Because smokers and non-smokers were distributed at random across different disease severity levels, there was no statistically significant link between smoking status and COVID-19 severity. All parameters (plasma protein and liver enzymes) showed statistically significant differences, especially between the deceased groups except K level, which did not differ significantly in all groups. This study aimed to investigate some biological markers during infection to see if there was a link between these measurements and risk factors, as well as the severity and progression of the disease.

Effect of Nitrate via CVD Coating on Hydrogen Embrittlement in High Strength Steel Treated with Zinc PVD Coating

Ihsan Ali; Ameen D. Thamer; Faras Q. Mohammad

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2022, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 124-131
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2021.4323.1095

High strength low alloy steel (HSLAS) is quite sensitive to hydrogen embrittlement due to its different phases. This study investigated the hydrogen embrittlement (HE) behavior of uncoated, physically vapor deposition (PVD) coated, and chemically vapor deposition (CVD) coated HSLAS. The XRD indicates the formation of ZnO, Zn(N3)2, γN and C3N4 phases at the outer coating layer. The results show that combination of surface nitriding and zinc deposition are efficient method against hydrogen embrittlement. This could be attributed to the reduction of hydrogen that is generated by the reaction of surface Zn) N3)2 phase and the low rate of hydrogen transport through the γN phase. The coatings were tested by immersing the tensile samples in a diluted H2SO4 solution with water for 24 hours. Additionally, the result shows that combined coating resulting in higher tensile strength, yield stress, and tensile elongation compared to uncoated samples.  Hardness results indicate that the combined coatings (PVD + CVD) has the higher value of about 258 HV, followed by the uncoated sample of about 218 HV, while the PVD only coated sample have the lower hardness value of about 175 HV.

Some Properties of Strongly Principally Self-Injective Modules

Khalid S. Munshid; Mohanad F. Hamid; Jehad R. Kider

Journal of Applied Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2022, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 132-141
DOI: 10.53293/jasn.2021.3248.1096

The idea of generalizing quasi injective by employing a new term is introduced in this paper. The introduction of principally self-injective modules, which are principally self-injective modules. A number of characteristics and characterizations of such modules have been established. In addition, the idea of strongly mainly self-pure sub-modules was added, which is similar to strongly primarily self-injective sub-modules. Some characteristics of injective, quasi-injective, principally self-injective, principally injective, absolutely self-pure, absolutely pure, and finitely R-injective modules being lengthened to strongly principally self-injective modules. So, in the present work, some properties are added to the concept in a manner similar to the absolutely self-neatness. The fundamental features of these concepts and their interrelationships are linked to the conceptions of some rings. (Von Neumann) regular, left SF-ring, and left pp-ring rings are described via such concept. For instance, the homomorphic picture of every principally injective module be strongly principally self-injective if R being left pp-ring, and another example for a commutative ring R of every strongly principally self-injective module be flat if R being (Von Neumann) regular. Also, a ring R be (Von Neumann) regular if and only if each R-module being strongly principally self-injective module.